FFE Journal - Fakes Forgeries Experts

Articles

Paper

FFE #7

Franked Newspapers in the Serbian Principality 1866-1880

Class: Aero

Dr. Vekizar M. Kardosch

10 pages article in English and in German. A very interesting article that opposes another article in FFE No. 5, 2002 in which two rare newspapers were regarded forged on a very doubtfull basis as to the author.The author defends previous oppinions of the rare newspapers as genuine.

Letter

FFE #7

Il Grande Raid Aero Franco - Italiano: Bologna-Venice-Rimini-Bologna, 17-18 September 1911

Class: TR

Dr. Fiorenzo Longhi

8 pages article in English and in Italian. Two forged letters/cards are compared with genuine ones.

Detail

FFE #7

The ZP3 forged overprint

Class: TR

Dieter Leder

14 pages article in German and in English. The article confirms with many interesting close-up photos a forgery of partial double overprint.

Stamp

FFE #7

The Carlista Forgeries wrongly called re-impressions

Class: TR

Eduardo Escalada

6 pages article in English and Spanish illustrating characteristica of the forgeries.

Letter

FFE #7

Manipulations

Class: PH

Heinz Erwin Jungjohan

2 pages article in English and German, demonstrating how a demaged letter got restored. Illustrated before and after restoration.

Stamps

FFE #7

Illegal and Forged stamps - two faces of the same scourge

Class: TR

Albertino de Figueiredo

6 pages in English and Spanish about the fight against illegal issues.

Stamp

FFE #7

Forgery og the Dornstetten (O.A. FREUDENSTADT) postmark

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

2 pages article reporting about new finds of forged postmarks on covers from inflation period appearing on flea markets in Germany.

Letter

FFE #7

Relationship among art, science and philately

Class: TR

Ernst M. Cohn

9 pages article in English and German. About using postal history as a tool for detecting forgeries.

Letter

FFE #7

Forgeries or manipulations of Strubel bisects

Class: TR

Erhard Keller

5 pages article in English and German. 5 interesting cases are demonstrated.

Stamp

FFE #7

Queensland archival strikes - not what they appear

Class: TR

Bernie Beston

3 pages article in English.

Letter

FFE #7

Austrian Mail in Hungary - unusual frankings with Austria's 5th issue.

Class: TR

Istvan Glatz

8 pages article with description of 5 GENUINE covers from same correspondence, all sent to New York.

Stamps

FFE #7

"Sunday-print", "Ferrarity" og reprint.

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

2 pages article about Iceland 25 Aur with black I GILDI overprint. This stamp has got overprinted after all other values were printed as "Sunday-prints". The original typography was used for overprint but compiled different from the 6 settings used in the correct period.

Letter

FFE #7

Not forged - but?

Class: TR

Hans Ehlern Jessen

3 pages article in English. The article reports analysis of a cover bearing a 14 Cents stamp from The Danish Westindies. Forged or manipulated?

Letter

FFE #7

Forgeries of the Argentinean Forerunner Postmarks

Class: TR

Dr. Mario D. Kurchan

3 pages article in English and in Spanish. Five covers and two letter cuts are analyzed in the article - forgeries produced from unfranked without cancels. Rubber cancels reproduced from the Knietschel catalogue issued 1958 are applied on the items.

Stamp

FFE #7

The papers and the different colours found in Jean de Sperati's production of the first two issues of Newfoundland

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

11 pages article in english and in french. A scientific analysis of colour and paper used for the forgeries of Sperati.

Stamps

FFE #7

Portuguese Navigators

Class: TR

Pedro Marcal Vaz Pereira

A problem i Portuguese philately. 4 pages article in english. Proofs made by the stamp designer Martins Barata (Sr.) were a private print not made for the actual process of manufacturing the stamps.

Genuine stamp

FFE #7

Issues for the XI International Railway Congress og Spain for the year 1930 and forgeries of it

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

10 pages article in english and spanish. Article with many excellent illustrations comparing genuine and forgeries of the Issue.

Letter

FFE #7

New Carlisle Cover Analysis

Class: TR

Vincent Graves Greene, Philatelic Research Foundation

3 pages article in englich with illustrations of two covers including newresearch of a Carlisle cover.

Letter

FFE #7

Faked covers from Sicily 1859-60

Class: TR

Francesco Lombardo

8 pages article in english and italian. The author demonstrates how postal historical knowledge discloses faked covers.

Stamp

FFE #7

Fakes and forgeries of Australian Italy (Lombardo-Veneto) 1850-1866

Class: TR

Kurt E. Kimmel

5 pages article in english and german. Illustrations demonstrates genuine and faked postmarks and a forgery of 10 Cents, a 12-block with four St. Andrews crosses.

Stamps

FFE #7

Doubtful and bogus items from Bolivia, Carpatho-Ukraine, Hungary, Latvia and USSR

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

4 pages article in english. The author gives an interesting background for various doubtful overprint issues, e.g. Hungary, Michel Nos. 598-611. Latvia, Michel Nos. 282,283,286,290 & 291 with red star overprint with initials, USSR Michel Nos. 675,679, 682 & 685 with "error" overprints.

Stamps

FFE #7

Some Brazilian fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

11 pages article in english, describing e.g. a faked cover with 90rs Bull's Eye with forged cancel "ITABAPOANA", a 90rs Bull's Eye block of four with ink cancel and with small defects - the block appeared later as unused (ink removed) and with repaird defects.

Spain

FFE #7

The Last Postal Forgery, which appeared in Spain, based on a design by Joan Miró, dedicated to his friend Picasso

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarro Payá

5 pages article in english and in spanish. The article describes how the determinate the postal forgery.

Stamp

FFE #7

Expert

Class: Other

Jean-Francois Brun

The 25 elements that significates an expert. English and french.

Letter

FFE #7

Himalayan Phantasies

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

6 pages article with description and excellent illustrations of 5 covers with forged cancels. By the end of the article is a modern forgery shown, a block of 10 of the 1960 1 Rupee, Birthday of King Mahendra, Official stamp with HANDPAINTED OVERPRINT.

Letter

FFE #7

Forgeries of the Moscow City Post Stationery Entire

Class: TR

Zbigniew Mikulski

6 pages article in english. The article illustrates genuine as well as forged stationeries with many excellent photos.

Stamp

FFE #7

A. Ronald Butler

Class: TR

The Diadem Fivepence

3 pages article in english describing forgeries of imperfs, "Specimen" overprints as well as Spiro and Panelli forgeries.

Letter

FFE #7

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeldt

Forgeries on Colombian pre-philatelic covers. 16 pages article in english and spanish. Describing the forgeries of "NEIVA" and "BUCARAMANGA" wiht many illustrations.

Mystery of Brazilian Parahyba provisional

FFE #8

Mystery of Brazilian Parahyba provisional

Class: Aero

Wolfgang Maassen

Taking off from an aggravating change in the renowned MICHEL Zeppelin and airmail catalogue 2002, which discontinued the listing of Brazil's famous "Parahyba provisional", the author, W. Maassen, traces the early history of this provisional, so important in aerophilately. By analysis of existing literature he documents its sources back to the year 1932 and discusses in this first part of a study the typical circumstances and conditions in Brazil in the early 1930's, by way of which he refutes objections previously raised by I. Lukanc and recently repeated by D. Leder to question the authenticity of the Parahyba provisional. keywords: airmail, aerophilately, provisional, overprint, Zeppelin, Parahyba, Brazil

Faked postage due and registration usage of the Chinese imerial 3rd issue postcards

FFE #8

Faked postage due and registration usage of the Chinese imerial 3rd issue postcards

Class: PST

Yu-An Chen

The 3rd issues of Chinese Imperial Postcards are always hot items to the Chinese Postal Card collectors. Among the 3rd issues, the Postal Due and Registration usage are very rare and quite expensive, that made these items become the targets of forgers. The content of this article is to reveal the tricks of these forgers. Hope collectors would pay more attention and keep away from those forgeries. Key words: Forgeries of the Chinese Imperial Postcards

New forgeries of Colombian prephilatelic postal markings

FFE #8

New forgeries of Colombian prephilatelic postal markings

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeldt

The article shows and explains a new type of Colombian Forgeries of pre-philatelic letters. Original entires without any postal markings from the Spanish Royal Mail period of 1775 to 1820 are marked with handpainted Bogus / Fantasy Colonial postal markings not recorded before. The enlargements of the details show clearly this "work of art" of the unknown forger.

Swan of duckling in Belgian philately

FFE #8

Swan of duckling in Belgian philately

Class: TR

Morten Johan Linstrup

The real date of issue for 5(+5) c Small Medallion (COB129) is shown to be, most likely, 6 October 1914, i.e. not 3 Oct 1914. (b) A seemingly non-philatelic use of 10(+10) c Small Medallion (COB130), imperforate left, is shown. (c) A cover with a forged 10(+10) c Mérode monument used - probably inadvertently - to harm the Post is shown. It is claimed that postal use of such forgeries is an overlooked particular in Belgian postal history. It is further speculated that such objects may be the earliest case to be found of forgeries to harm philatelists actually being used to harm the Post. Key Words: Belgium, Red Cross, Mérode monument, Mérode forgery, postal use of forgery

FIP and philatelic expertising

FFE #8

FIP and philatelic expertising

Class: Other

Tay Peng Hian

The FIP Expert Team was in action since 1990, to check for any forged items in FIP exhibitions. This article tells how the Expert Team functions, and the effect of their actions that have created more awareness of the exhibitors in buying. Key words: Detection of forged philatelic items at FIP exhibitions.

Iceland 1924, 10 Kr./1 Kr. Provisional with double overprint, facit catalouge no 123V.

FFE #8

Iceland 1924, 10 Kr./1 Kr. Provisional with double overprint, facit catalouge no 123V.

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

The only known Kr. 10/1 Kr. Provisional from Iceland is a FORGERY. The article illustrates why.

42 Penny black block

FFE #8

42 Penny black block

Class: TR

A.I.E.P

The AIEP board, refering to the news announced by Mr Paolo Vaccari and widely diffused by the Press, about discovering of a block 42 Penny Black.

SuperB on-peice forgeries

FFE #8

SuperB on-peice forgeries

Class: Other

Heikki Reinkainen

The article 'Superb on piece forgeries' deals with forgeries consisting of usually two or more stamps of various colours on piece or clipping instead of full cover forgeries found in growing quantities in the marketplace.

Questionable items of Bulgaria, Romania and Russia

FFE #8

Questionable items of Bulgaria, Romania and Russia

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Four separate sections to the article, covering Bulgaria and the Russian area.

Clandestine "Ceres" stamps from Portugal

FFE #8

Clandestine "Ceres" stamps from Portugal

Class: PH

J. Miranda da Mota

The article aims at examining thoroughly the characteristics and description of the perforated clandestine Ceres stamps from Portugal. Aspects about the genuine portuguese Ceres issues are referred to frame the subject. A special attention to the characteristics and particularities of the clandestine stamps perforation have been done in order to identifie it in comparison to the genuine ones, both with the 15x14 and with the 12x11 1/2 perforation. The article finish with a list of the clandestine Ceres stamps: face value, colour, perforation, type of gravure (with or without retouch), paper, and the correspondent issue of the genuine ones.

I accuse of Fraud Belgian Rural postmen between 1849 and 1860

FFE #8

I accuse of Fraud Belgian Rural postmen between 1849 and 1860

Class: PH

Leo De Clercq

" The Belgian rural postman developped a difficult to intercept system of fraud. Collected letters to distribute during the same rural round must been taxed with a minimum of 10 centimes. The received taxes of such letters are to be inscribed on the way bill. It is impossible to prove today if that is didden correctly. On the other hand, from the first years of the use of stamps: 1849-1860, I discovered rural franked letters from wich the mint stamp was taken off. In the place of them have been placed used stamps. To dissimulate the fraud these stamps have been spoiled with ink by the rural postmen . When I found in one rural archive fifteen such letters, in all the country have been thousands of them." Key Words: Belgium - Medaillons, Fraud by rural postmen, Belgium - Rural post

A wake up call for Australian philately

FFE #8

A wake up call for Australian philately

Class: PH

Bernie Beston

The faking of Official perforation on Postal Stationery of the Australian States and the Commonwealth of Australia, especially Newspaper wrappers. Key Words: Perfins; Newspaper wrappers; Australian States; Commonwealth of Australia.

Forgerires to decieve the Canadian post office

FFE #8

Forgerires to decieve the Canadian post office

Class: PH

Richard Gratton

As in most countries, in Canada there exist numerous forgeries to deceive the post. They are sought after by specialist collectors and enthusiasts for fakes and postal frauds. Since I have been often approached by the Security Service of the Canadian Post and by the Royal Canadian Mountain Police ( RCMP ) as an expert consultant in their enquiries about certain forgeries, I think it will be of interest if I share some information with the readers of Fakes Forgeries Experts (FFE) and my colleagues in the International Association of Experts in Philately (A.I.E.P.) This article list all Canadian forgeries know to defraud the Canadian postal system. Key Words: CANADIAN POSTAL FORGERIES, POSTAL FRAUDS

The ‘Brighton’ Forgeries of Jammu and Kashmir

FFE #8

The "Brighton" Forgeries of Jammu and Kashmir

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

The so-called 'Brighton' forgeries were produced between 1902 and 1907 by Harold Treherne. The forgeries were made by photographically transferring the design of the originals to a zinc printing plate. The Brighton forger imitated numerous stamps of the Indian States, and British Colonies, but his earliest and most famous forgeries are those of Jammu and Kashmir. The author tells the story of these imitations and adds a very detailed check list of the numerous Brighton forgeries of Jammu and Kashmir.

New dangerous forgeries and Czech philately

FFE #8

New dangerous forgeries and Czech philately

Class: TR

Frantisek Benes

The article introduces new dangerous forgeries of Czechoslovak as well as foreign stamps that appeared on the Czechoslovak market after 1989, very often in connection with the import of stamps from abroad to the Czech lands. The article discusses repaired stamps from the U.S. collections, as well as various stamps printed in the 1970s from misused original stocks or plates. However, its main theme is the recent discovery of dangerous forgeries of overprints on the stamps of Czechoslovakia, Germany, Wrtenberg, Danzig and Saare, Zara, Elsass and Vilnius. The forgeries of the 1932 German stamp with the overprint flaw 12 + 3 Rdf are also discussed. Many of the forgeries have certificates of genuineness from both former Czech and foreign experts. The article is supplemented by a brief history of stamp collecting and organized philately in the Czech lands since the 1870s, and comments on a changing profile of Czech stamp market. Key Words: Czech philately - Forgeries of stamps - Overprints - Czechoslovak stamps - German stamps

Fakes of the Swiss telegraph stamps

FFE #8

Fakes of the Swiss telegraph stamps

Class: TR

Kurt E. Kimmel

Faked cancellations on Swiss Telegraph stamps exist due to the fact that huge remainders of mint sheets were sold in 1887 and cancelled after their validity period (Dec 31, 1886) partly using the original cancelling devices. Thanks to the carefully kept records of dates and condition upon receipt when these were returned to the PTT in Berne, in most cases we can prove if the Swiss Telegraph stamps were cancelled during their validity period or not. If this was done fraudulently afterwards, we have to call them fakes even if the Telegraph stamps are original and the cancellation done with the same canceller as used during the validity period. Genuine and faked ones with the same cancellation are illustrated in order to teach the reader how to detect the fakes. Key Words: Swiss Telegraph stamps Remainders Faked cancellations Albert Auberson PTT Records "Stempelkontrolle"

This is a dangerous forgery of the special cancellation used on the Allahabad to Naini Junction flight on the 18th February 1911. It is backstamped Allahabad 18 FE 11 and Bombay Fort 20 FE 11, both forgeries. The genuine Allahabad cancellation of this period has a series of breaks in the outer rings. This is a doctored half anna postal stationary envelope which never went through any post-flown or otherwise.

FFE #8

Allahabad - Naini flight 1911 forged post mark of world´s first official airmail

Class: Aero

Pradip Jain

A special Postmark was applied on the historical world's first official airmail flight on 18th Feb. 1911 from Allahabad to Naini. The forgery of this famous Postmark also exist.

Fakes and forgeries of Slovenia 15 and 20 kronen

FFE #8

Fakes and forgeries of Slovenia 15 and 20 kronen

Class: TR

Per Friis Mortensen

Description of the "Padevet forgeries" and the "Sunday printings".

Review of the "Degron-kun Covers". French/Japanese combination covers

FFE #8

Review of the "Degron-kun Covers". French/Japanese combination covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Definition and description covers with mixed frankings

On the expertising of Postage Stamps. Advice for collectors with historical review on forgeries and experts

FFE #8

On the expertising of Postage Stamps. Advice for collectors with historical review on forgeries and experts

Class: TR

Prof. Dr. Ulrich Ferchenbauer

Description of various types of forgeries, improvements etc. Methods of expertising, signing, identification of false stamps and description of quality. English and German text.

 Falsification of the so-called "St. Gottard Post Card"

FFE #8

Falsification of the so-called "St. Gottard Post Card"

Class: TR

Georges Schild

The history about the faked Jubilee post card, printed by Sachs and Homberger, Zurich and sold by Pieper, Berlin.

The "300 LIEPAJA 300" special postmark also forged

FFE #8

The "300 LIEPAJA 300" special postmark also forged

Class: TR

Harry von Hoffman

The "300 LIEPAJA 300" special postmark also forged.

Great Britain King George VI letterpress postal stationery impressions

FFE #8

Great Britain King George VI letterpress postal stationery impressions

Class: Other

Alan Huggins

Illustrates and describes the philatelically produved Great Britain, King George VI letterpress stamped to order postal stationery dies struck on various colured paper which are often offered as proofs.

Notes on the "Green Post" of 1921

FFE #8

Notes on the "Green Post" of 1921

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann

More frequently on the philatelic market, especially in Internet, counterfeits of the stamps of Ghetto Litzmannstadt (Lodz) appear. Some of these fabrications, also on entires, are described. One should be warned of purchasing. The history of the so-called insurrection-fieldpost, Green Post, Upper Silesia 1920 is discussed critically and the handling of the theme in catalogues. Last a pr ocedure for expertizing of non-official issues will be introduced.

Typical "Album Weeds"

FFE #1

Fakes Forgeries Experts

Class: TR

A. Ronald Butler

A brief outline of FFE taxonomy, with examples: A faked stamp is a genuine stamp that has been altered with a view to enhancing its philatelic value. A forged stamp is a fraudulent imitation of a genuine stamp, overprint, surcharge or postal obliteration. The term "Expert" may apply to individuals as well as committees.

Stamp with cuts

FFE #1

Wondrous transformations

Class: TR

Albert Louis and Karl Albert Louis

Thirty-four illustrated and annotated examples (22 Great Britain, 12 Netherlands) of manipulations of rare classic material. Evidence is mainly gathered by comparative study of auction catalogues, old and new. Even unique and beautiful items are demonstrably "improved". Various types of manipulations are shown.

Letter from Ostroleka

FFE #1

Postal fraud in tsarist Russia

Class: TR

Zbigniew S. Mikulski

Classic Russia and Poland (no.1). Thirty-one illustrated examples of postal fraud, including triple use of a stamp. With historical and geographical context notes. Fraudulent re-use (removed ink cancellation, etc), 18 examples. Plus postal forgeries, 13 examples with different types and places of production and use of early 20th century forgeries of 7 k. and 70 kopeck, and 3.50 rubles.

Miscarried cancellation of a sheet

FFE #1

A rare stamp that should not be in existence

Class: TR

Emil Rellstab

PRO AERO 1938, 75 rappen, un-used ! - The cover article explains the background of the issue and how, rarely and only by mistake, a few copies of this stamp escaped cancellation. A forgery of the overprint is also described and shown.

10d undated

FFE #1

Mutton dressed as lamb

Class: TR

Alain Huggins

A warning for GB embossed stamps 1847-1854 imitated by manipulation of telegraph forms and stamped to order postal stationery imprinted with similar dies. A particular note of skepticism concerning the 'die 5' of 10d, which may be non-existent. Even certificated copies could all be cut from postal stationery.

Type 2

FFE #1

Forgeries of the second issue of Tibet

Class: TR

Wolfgang C. Hellrigl

Description and illustration of forged 4 tangka blue and 8 tangka red issue of 1914 (or perhaps 1920) in sheets of six. Nine different types appearing 1957-1992 (and a total of 39 distinct clichés). - By far, the classic Tibetan issue least plagued by forgeries !

Typographic forgeries

FFE #1

Recent Hong Kong forgeries

Class: TR

Andrew M. T. Cheung

1891 "Jubilee" overprint; mint Q. Victoria 4c; inverted watermarks; Q. Victoria 18c Wm. Crown CC; 1948 $10 silver wedding; 1990's "mystery" missing yellows; SPECIMENs; THREE on 5c on 18c postcard; QE Annigoni $10 glazed paper w. PVA gum; treaty port postmarks; modern postmarks - even FDC's.

Illustration from Otto Hornung

FFE #1

I got caught more than once

Class: TR

Otto Hornung

Personal experiences with repaired "1914 Sultans" of Turkey. A warning that probably manipulated covers are the main problems in Turkish philately. Since postal rates were little known, for long fakers had rich opportunity to "improve" covers by adding interesting stamps. Today, one must be wary of such covers.

Photo credits: Francese Graus

FFE #1

Forgeries and literature in the electronic era

Class: TR

Charles J. Peterson

An argument and a call for FIP and/or AIEP to establish a centralised web page with information on forgeries. With illustrations and examples from the commendable Spanish [Barcelona] "Graus-web", to be found [01/2006] at http://graus.com/pral.asp

Corrected design

FFE #1

New Zealand 1996 "Teddy Bear" health stamps

Class: TR

Colin G. Capill

Story of how the 40c health stamp 1996 was recalled (and replaced) three weeks before issue because the original design depicted an illegal position of a child seat in a car. A few stamps with the erroneous design were inadvertantly sold. The status of the miniature sheet with the incorrect design, however, is "not officially issued" as it was never sold "over the counter".

Advertisement of Hamilton's Continental Balloon Post

FFE #1

We need postal history expertisers

Class: TR

Ernst M. Cohn

A philosophically inclined article emphasizing challenges of postal history expertising. Subtitles: The improved cover - The bogus cover - The genuine cover - Expertizing covers - Conclusions. - Statement that experts too often fail to recognize grey (as opposed to back and white) situations where it is right to say "No opinion", or "Yes, but...".

The "T", (front)

FFE #1

Postage due handstamps of Malta - fakes

Class: TR

Anthony Fenech

Description and illustration of forged ½d and 7d postage due handstamps. Genuine use of those denominations is still unknown, but faked letters from the 'Matteo Tabone e figli' correspondence have surfaced with forged ½d and 7d postage due handstamps.

Illustration from Andrew Cronin

FFE #1

Russian varieties are not always what they seem

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Description and illustration of how double perforated and partially imperforate ("fantail") stamps from Russia/USSR have arisen. A warning that systematic "improvement" of fantails has taken place to produce all imperforate stamps with margins, typically by cutting away the partial three-sided perforation. Very few USSR stamps genuinely exist completely imperforate.

Exhibited cover Pacific 97

FFE #1

Forged cancellations used on cover Dutch East Indies, made by R. E. P. Maier, found in the PTT Museum, The Hague, Netherlands

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

Description and illustration of forged "prephilatelic" JAVA GENERAL POST OFFICE BATAVIA DOL=LORS STY=VERS and JAVA POST OFFICE SAMARANG DOL=LORS STY=VERS cancellations deriving from R. E. P. Maier (tried and convicted in 1963).

Area of Penny Black

FFE #1

1 May 1840 - The story of an investigation

Class: TR

Patrick C. Pearson

Story of how the 1 May 1840 lettersheet from the Smith correspondence was examined in 1997 by philatelic and forensic experts and finally declared authentic by the Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society London in the face of two previous submissions (1978 and 1992) having yielded the opposite result. P. Holcombe and BPA already believed it to be genuine in 1992.

Original

FFE #1

Belgique - Falsification de marque postales

Class: TR

Leo De Clercq

Arched AFFR INSUFF handstamps on classic Belgian covers. Forged and genuine examples.

Christiania 6/7-1888

FFE #1

The only forgery I detected myself

Class: TR

Paul H. Jensen

A faked overprint on the rare 1888 Norwegian 3/5 öre postal stationery reply paid ("double") postcard (believed to have a genuine circulation of only 50 cards printed). The forgery is believed to be old and a copy has been found in collections in each of Belgium and Germany.

Comparison of forged  stamp

FFE #1

"Gronchi Rosa"

Class: TR

Giorgio Colla Asinelli

A dangerous forgery of the L. 205 "Gronchi Rosa" from 1961.

Graph of a fake dating ca 1940-1965

FFE #1

How are the philatelic experts organised in the FIP member federations?

Class: TR

Paolo Vollmeier

Results of a questionnaire. Summary of ten questions answered by 56 national philatelic federations.

Graph of a fake dating ca 1940-1965

FFE #1

New methods to identify fakes

Class: TR

Paolo Vollmeier

Mass spectrographic examination as applied to handstamps, forged and genuine, on prephilatelic letters from Italy, notably Venezia. With 22 illustrations.

Company stamp of Francois Fournier

FFE #1

The Fournier Collection at the Museum of Communication in Berne

Class: TR

Jean-Claude Lavanchy

Who was Francois Fournier? - Was he a counterfeiter, or not? - What do we know about his company's history? - With nine illustrations and some transcriptions of letters (in French).

Siam: 1 Att on 2 Atts, 1889

FFE #1

FIAP expert teams working at Asian international stamp exhibitions 1996-1997

Class: TR

Tay Peng Hian

Findings from TAIPEI '96 and HONG KONG '97. With nine illustrations and further recommendations.

Litzmannstadt/Lodz Ghetto Fabrications

FFE #9

The Litzmannstadt/Lodz ghetto fabrications

Class: PH

Heinz-Erwin Jungjohann

In a short presentation some fabrications of the Litzmannstadt/Lodz ghetto-post are described. These are in circulation at the moment, but the article warns against purchasing.

The Philatelic Manipulations of Viktor Indra

FFE #9

The philatelic manipulations of Viktor Indra

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

The late Viktor Indra was a Czech postal historian, who had an interest in receiving self-addressed and franked envelopes and postcards from out-of-the-way countries and territories in the period from the 1930s until well into the 1980s. The article shows examples of the mail he received from the Tuvan Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic and from the Carpatho-Ukraine in the transition period of 1944-1945, when that former Czech province was being liberated by the Soviet Army in World War II. He thus received extremely interesting postal history usages from both Tuva and the Carpatho-Ukraine and it is greatly to be regretted that Mr. Indra had a most unfortunate tendency to "improve upon" the envelopes and postcards he received, by later adding or modifying registration labels and cachets, as well as inserting addresses on mail that never went through the Post. The information set out in the article by Andrew Cronin FRPSL, TM, will help postal historians to separate out the items, which had been manipulated by Mr. Indra

Fouraustrian military postal letters dated 1866, all to good to be true

FFE #9

Four Austrian military postal letters dated 1866, all to good to be true

Class: PH

Lorenzo Carra

The Author, narrates one of his early acquisitions, which didn't convince him totally even then, and proceeds to tell about later experiences with some letters, supposedly written during the Italian 3°War of Indipendence 1866, from the Austian Military Post, a question on which the Author deals thoroughly in his esteemed publication, "1866 La Liberazione del Veneto." Certain letters, stamped "K.K FELD POST EXPOS N.4", have resulted in being false. L.C. documents and motivates his considerations regarding the various methods of counterfeiting. Due to this experience, which has taught the Author much, fearing that more of these false letters made in the 40,s or50,s should come onto the market,he has forwarned collectors that at certain prices things can be, too good to be true!

The scientific microscope for fighting forgeries in philately

FFE #9

The scientific microscope for fighting forgeries in philately

Class: Other

Prof. Dr. U.E. Klein

Scientific light- and UV-microscopes with magnification more than 400 times are new tools for examining the highly varying micro-composition and pigment-microstructures of printer's dyes on stamps and dye mixtures of post markers. Illumination coming from the back side of the objects and transversing the paper is the secret. Examining the structures and not functional behaviour of printer's dyes is the aim of this technique. Examples of newly discriminated excellent forgeries are given. Keywords: Transmission microscopy, Overprint forgeries, Microstructure of printer's dyes

Detecting fakes by checking the postal rate

FFE #9

Detecting fakes by checking the postal rate

Class: TR

James Van der Linden

The overview concerns the basic information on conservation and artifact restoration of philatelic items to restore the cover to the state it was in when sent, and how far can one go i.e. what is legitimate as against improvements for gain of money. Furthermore is mentioned the list of possibilities of restoration, some tolerated, some bordering on forgeries. The conclusion deals with other forms of protection e.g. sunshine damage in exhibition rooms, and supplementary added inscriptions on the covers. Key words: Paper conservation - artifact restoration - original state of covers.

The counterfeits of the first hellenic olympic issues 1896-1900/01-1906

FFE #9

The counterfeits of the first Hellenic Olympic issues 1896-1900/01-1906

Class: TR

Michalis E. Tsironis

Presentation on the counterfeits of the Hellenic Olympic issues 1896-1900/01-1906. Specific importance and research on the 1906 issue, especially on the ΣΤΑΔΙΟΝ (ON ~ 1.2 mm) and ΣΤΑΔΙΟ Ν (ON ~ 2.2 mm) postmarks. Keywords: 1906, Olympic Games, Counterfeits, Forgeries

Postage dues and fakes

FFE #9

Postage dues and fakes

Class: PH

Michèle Chauvet

A lot of forgeries can be identified if philatelists have a little knwoledge about postal history. About a french postage due stamp, one caracteristic example: from a very ordinary letter somebody has made a wonderful, but impossible one. Keys words : French Postage due - forgery

Some brazilian fakes and forgeries

FFE #9

Some Brazilian fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

The article deals with fakes with Swedish cancellation marls and the use of Normal Swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes. During more than 30 years, I have served as an expert-member of the Philatelic Expert-committee in Sweden. The committee works on a mandate from the board of the Swedish Philatelic Federation. As an expert, I have documented manipulations and false use of Swedish postal cancels. In this article, I will publish some of the results from this documentation Keywords: Normal-cancellation 59, Normal-cancellation 60, Normal-cancellation 61, Normal-cancellation 59G

Fakes with swedish cancellation marks & the use of normal swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes

FFE #9

Fakes with Swedish cancellation marks & the use of normal Swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

The article deals with fakes with Swedish cancellation marls and the use of Normal Swedish cancellations for manipulative purposes. During more than 30 years, I have served as an expert-member of the Philatelic Expert-committee in Sweden. The committee works on a mandate from the board of the Swedish Philatelic Federation. As an expert, I have documented manipulations and false use of Swedish postal cancels. In this article, I will publish some of the results from this documentation. Keywords: Normal-cancellation 59, Normal-cancellation 60, Normal-cancellation 61, Normal-cancellation 59G

New studies of oneglia/panelli engaved forgeries

FFE #9

New studies of Oneglia/Panelli engraved forgeries

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Panelli's finishing touches on Oneglia's engraved forgeries can sometimes be detected by the perforations, cancellations, surcharges and even gum. Panelli apparently acquired a fairly large portion of the Oneglia stock in an unfinished state, but lacked Oneglia's tools for finishing the forgeries. New and different ones were used. In a few cases the perforation can be used to identify lithographed forgeries as having been made by Oneglia. Key words: Oneglia and Panelli Revisited

A cover that started a career in expertizing

FFE #9

A cover that started a career in expertizing

Class: PH

Robert P. Odenweller

A cover from the Burrus sale of 43 years ago was combined with a stamp from the same sale by a Parisian dealer and offered for sale only a few years later by a different dealer in London. Anomalies in rate and cancellations raised suspicions that proved it fake. The analysis involved led to an interest in the whole process of expertizing, which has continued to this day. Key words: New Zealand via Marseilles David Feldman

Circumstantial evidence can help authenticate one-of-a-kind items

FFE #9

Circumstantial evidence can help authenticate one-of-a-kind items

Class: PH

Fred F. Gregory

Unique items present difficult challenges for expert examiners asked to determine authenticity. This article explores how circumstantial evidence can be used to confirm findings based on physical evidence to arrive at a confident decision. A unique local cover sent in 1864 from one island to another in Hawaii was authenticated using other examples from the same correspondence, examples of handwriting, postal practices gleaned from the examination of other covers and physical evidence consistent with authenticity. Keywords: Hawaii; Honolulu; Bishop; Gulick; postmarks

The desirable authenticity of manufacture

FFE #9

The desirable authenticity of manufacture

Class: TR

Morten Johan Linstrup

Philatelists tend to scorn and avoid manufactured items. This article purpose to show that there may be a real place in philately for certain such objects. Two cases are presented. Firstly, in traditional philately, a manufactured - but clearly genuine - setting may lend credibility to a difficult stamp, the authenticity of which may otherwise be tricky to ascertain (Figure 1). Secondly, within postal history, a manufactured context may even be needed (sic) to properly tell right from wrong when observance of postal regulations was lax.

Expertizing the 15th example of the sutherland stamp

FFE #9

Expertizing the 15th example of the Sutherland stamp

Class: TR

Dr. Kauzuyuki Inoue MD

What are Sutherland Stamps? "Sutherland" is a name of a Yokohama-based company carrying mail and passengers with stage coach service between Yokohama and Tokyo in 1871, just before the inauguration of the Japanese Governmental Postal System. The company issued two kinds of local stamps: 1/2 Boo and 1 Boo. This time, the 15th example of Sutherland stamp was discovered and sold in an auction in November 2003. It was submitted to the Philatelic Museum for expertizing prior to the Auction, and our Expert Committee reached the conclusion that the stamp is genuine and it was recognized as the 15th example of the Sutherland stamp or the 8th example of the 1/2 Boo stamp. We introduce optical analysis by computer for our expertizing procedure. Key words: James Wilson Sutherland, Sutherland & Company, Philatelic Museum Expert Committee, Japan Philatelic Society Foundation scanner

An attractive use of british postal stationery in Beyrout?

FFE #9

An attractive use of British postal stationery in Beyrout?

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

The article provides a warning to collectors to double-check cancellations to ensure they are consistent with use of both adhesive stamps and postal stationery. In the case illustrated replacement stamp has been added to British registration envelope used in Beirut.

1948 Israel's first coins 3 mils perforated 10X10 fakes

FFE #9

1948 Israel's first coins 3 mils perforated 10X10 fakes

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

1948 Israel's First Coins - 3 mils perforated 10x10 Fakes: The article gives details about the printing and the sale of the #1 - 3 mils perforated 10x10. 540 tabbed stamps were issues of which only appx. 100 assumed to have survived, making it one of Israel's rarest stamp. The vast majority of the stamps offered on the market are Fakes. Shown are all the known types of the Fakes.

Conservation, preservation and restoration. C P R. In philately how far?

FFE #9

Conservation, preservation and restoration. C P R. In philately how far?

Class: TR

John C West

A postal stationery post card issued in 1901 which since that time has been affixed to a page in an official collection. The illustration shows the browning effect of the high acidic level in the post card and its transfer to an adjoining page. The British Library, Philatelic Collections: The Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection.

How to look after your collection - A basic guide

FFE #9

How to look after your collection - a basic guide

Class: TR

David R Beech

The article treats forgeries, created by adding or replacing stamps on covers, to make them more attractive i.e. more expensive. The replacements of defected or inexpensive stamps or adding's to upgrade stampless covers, are illustrated. The range of the shown, commented forgeries starts with Belgium with further examples of Germany and the United States. The given advice concerns a profound knowledge of the use and sense of transit markings, routes and rates of the area of specialisation. Key words: faked covers by adding's or replacements.

Large hermes heads: Counterfeits of the so-called mixed frankings or combination covers

FFE #9

Large Hermes heads: Counterfeits of the so-called mixed frankings or combination covers

Class: PH

Wolfgang Bauer & Michael Tseriotis

Combination Covers are those with stamps of two or more countries and so fare not common at all. Greece was the only country in Europe using normal Large Hermes Head stamps as postage dues - other countries mark only the open amount on the coverfront. A lot of fakes were produced since long time to please the other collectors and the own pocket. Because of the complicated rates and regulations fakes were mostly accepted as correct! In this postal historian research is at the first time shown which Combination Covers are correct and why and which are faked or produced.

Forgeries to deceive the canadian post office part 2

FFE #9

Forgeries to deceive the canadian post office part 2

Class: Other

Richard Gratton

This is the second part of an article started with FFE #8 on postal forgeries to defraud the Canadian Post Office. All know forgeries are described and technical information is given to permit the reader to understand the basic differences between the genuine stamps and forgeries. Two recent forgeries are described and show how extremely competent forgers can reproduce almost exactly self adhesive postage stamp (including fluorescent tagging). Key words: Postal forgeries

The Helsingør letter with NK 1,3 and 5 is manipulated

FFE #9

The Helsingør letter with NK 1,3 and 5 is manipulated

Class: TR

Finn Aune

"Combination cover with Norway no.1 and Oscar was manipulated. The cover, which represent the quite common 15 sk postage to Denmark, was regarded as unique because of the combined franking with Norway no.1 together with other stamps. Despite the fact that the cover has been well known for decades and has been shown as highlights in exhibition collections, it has now been discovered to be a fake. It is the expert of Norwegian philately, Finn Aune, who through thorough investigation has detected and proved that the Norway no.1 had never belonged to the cover at all. It is very rare that long time recognized showpieces of this kind later proves itself to be manipulated. At this moment there is only known one genuine combination cover with Norway no.1 (together 8 sk Oscar) and one piece (together with 4 sk Oscar)."

Engraved Forgeries – Identifying the forger

FFE #4

Engraved Forgeries - Identifying the forger

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Engraving has been used less frequently than other means for producing forgeries. Most forgers have not made engraved forgeries of the same stamps, and it is possible, but not always, to identify individual forgers. The article reviews forgers including Jeffryes, Oneglia, Wada Kotaro, Gebrüder Senf, Cividini, and Winter, and their work. The piece concludes with notes on the forgeries of octagonal issues of Ceylon by Jeffryes and Oneglia.

New South Wales. The twopence 'EMU' postal forgery

FFE #4

New South Wales. The twopence 'EMU' postal forgery

Class: TR

A. Ronald Butler R.D.P.

A forgery recognised first as a variety in 1897, and despite its shortcomings, listed unpriced as a perforation variety by Stanley Gibbons for almost fifty years. Unlike the genuine two penny Emu, the forgery is lithographed and printed on unwatermarked paper. It is scarcer, but not rare, and it is worth 1000 times more than the genuine stamp. The writer reviews the genuine stamps and then examines the forgery. Means of identification are shown, and the perpetrator considered. No unused examples are recorded, and all bear genuine postmarks between March and May 1895. Based on a study of 25 examples, all are likely to have originated from post offices in Sydney. These are listed.

The forgeries of the classic stamps of Hungary

FFE #4

The forgeries of the classic stamps of Hungary

Class: PH

Gábor Visnyovski

Hungary used stamps designed and produced in Austria when they were first used in the Dual Monarchy. In 1871 stamps were issued valid only in Hungary, first printed in litho, and later in the same year, in recess. The same design, printed in letterpress was used for postal stationery, but a small issue of envelopes was printed in litho, and these were in use for a few months. The author considers forged handstamps on pre-stamp material, forged Tokay roulettes and bisects, and Hungarian cancellations on the 1867 issue. The characteristics of litho and recess printing are discussed, and forgeries in litho, distinguished by the regularity of their perforations, and made from postal stationery are examined. The forged 2 Kreutzer litho made from postal stationery is referred to and distinguished from the genuine. There is a recommended literature list.

Novelties from the forgery workshop

FFE #4

Novelties from the forgery workshop

Class: PH

Rolf-Dieter Jaretsky R.D.P.

Fakes made from original material with additions are dangerous; the military post of the Second World War is no exception. The author inspected two items at an auction before inspecting the rest of a large consignment of military mail at an auction. Suspecting that 50% was doubtful, he bought the entire consignment with a right to return it if false, and submitted it to Hanfried Müller, an expert who declared all items to be fakes. These included winter parcels, airmail express cards, Danzig post and service marks, and airmail authorisation stamps. Items showed postmarks sharing the same date, and similar characteristics, from different units, and examples of the faking process are shown.

The manipulation of Czechoslovak Siberian legion material

FFE #4

The manipulation of Czechoslovak Siberian legion material

Class: PH

Andrew Cronin

In 1919 three stamps inscribed VOJENSKÁ POŠTA were produced for the Czechoslovak Siberian legion, in denominations of 25 and 50 kopecs and 1 rouble. They were unnecessary since military mail passed free. The circumstances of mail produced by the legion are described. Since some cards carried no markings, they were later improved with genuine cachets and stamps, and also complete fabrications were made. Additional stamps and surcharges were also made at the time. The author records the range of abuse and malpractice in a comprehensive article, and examines the actions of Captain Antonín Novotný and J. Rössler-Oàovský. Addresses appearing on manipulated material are shown.

Three unusual covers

FFE #4

Three unusual covers

Class: TR

Herbert H Moll

Coincidence can give rise to suspicion. Three Peruvian covers are described. Two have serially adjacent certificate numbers, one from 1858 is thought to have a suspect postmark, another from 1873 may be good, and a third has the same postmark as the second, but from 1872. The problem is that all have identical handwriting although there is fifteen years between the first and the last.

Norway local post forgeries

FFE #4

Norway local post forgeries

Class: PH

Björn A Schöyen

Local posts flourished in Norway until 1888 when the Norwegian Post Office was granted a monopoly. The last local post closed in 1913. In Norway there was a collector and self appointed expert with superb material, a high reputation, and a great deal of knowledge. At the end of 1990 three Norwegian philatelists discussed the increasing number of previously unknown local postal history items. An obviously manipulated item was discovered, the police were involved, an investigation took place, a trial ensued, followed by a large fine and a confiscated collection. Over 100 faked handstamps are known, and an example of a manipulated item is dissected. Be wary of high priced local post items, and disregard certificates issued by H. Aarbogh.

Ægean islands 1912-1922: an overview and brief survey of forged overprints

FFE #4

Ægean islands 1912-1922: an overview and brief survey of forged overprints

Class: TR

Giorgio Migliavacca

Libia, Rodi, Simi, Cos, Stampalia, Calimno, Caso, Lipso, Patmos, Piscopi, Nsiros, Scarpanto, Leros and Karki. Overprints on Italian stamps (2c, 5c, 10c, 15c, 25c, 40c, and 50c) were made for Libya, and for the Dodecanese Islands in 1912. Discounted pricing in the Dodecanese is discussed, as is the production and high quality of the overprints. To meet philatelic demand large quantities were produced, and following strong demand further overprinting took place with no reduction in quality. The issue of the stamps, subsequent overprints and the actions of the Italian post office are examined. Forgeries date from the late 1920s to the 1950s, and since the material is generally inexpensive, it appears they were intended for the packet market. Extensive illustration and exposition follows covering twenty pages.

A miracle: Wenden No I “on cover”

FFE #4

A miracle: Wenden No I "on cover"

Class: PH

Harry v Hofman BPP FRPSL

From 1862, and not Wenden number 1. This stamp inscribed WENDEN'sche KREIS-BRIEF POST in blue and white was a trial. Essay, proofs or other trials have been seen in black on pink. A cover was offered to an auction house with the supposed "Essay", postmarked Wenden and Riga. Close examination reveals the date to be 1875. The errors made by the forger are listed, and the "Essay" shown to be from a coloured label commemorating the 100th anniversary of Wenden stamps. Item withdrawn.

The forged “Nationen” covers

FFE #4

The forged "Nationen" covers

Class: PH

Egil H Thomassen R.D.P.

Norwegian airmail covers bearing the red handstamp BEFORDRET pr. NATIONENS FLYVEPOST Kr-sand - Kr-a 19-21 JUNI 1920 were flown from Kristiansand to Kristiania and are found postmarked 19th-21st June 1920. Others marked BEFORDRET pr. NATIONENS FLYVEPOST Kr-a - Kr- sand 19-21 JUNI 1920 are found mainly in violet, with a few in red. In 1941 the auctioneer of OslofilatelistKlubb became suspicious of a cover handed in for sale. Examining five covers revealed four forgeries and the trail led to an individual who was prosecuted and found not guilty of acting illegally for monetary gain. It is not certain how many such covers were produced and the writer details how the forgeries can be identified.

Forgery (marked with faux) and falsification of the Europa-Cept-Andorra (Spanish) Mi.No. 71, issue year 1972

FFE #4

Forgery (marked with faux) and falsification of the Europa-Cept-Andorra (Spanish) Mi.No. 71, issue year 1972

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Andorra issued a EUROPA-CEPT stamp in 1972. Following speculation the price rose and forgeries were produced. The forgeries are line perforated, and printed in offset litho, contrary to genuine stamps. FDC marked FAUX have had this removed and are offered on the philatelic market. The article describes the distinctions between genuine and forged items.

Forged postmark on the Saar miniature sheets 1 and 2 of 1948

FFE #4

Forged postmark on the Saar miniature sheets 1 and 2 of 1948

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

A wide margin between prices of mint and genuinely cancelled examples of the Flood Disaster Relief Fund miniature sheets from 1948 encourage the forger. The article demonstrates simple tests which distinguish between forged and genuine examples.

Indonesia – are all inverted and double overprints indicated in catalogues genuine?

FFE #4

Indonesia - are all inverted and double overprints indicated in catalogues genuine?

Class: TR

Giel J. Bessels, Peter F.A. van de Loo

The Netherlands expert committee was asked to examine overprints from the republican Indonesian period from 1945-49 on the 10 cent stamp of the Dutch East Indies bearing the crowned head of Queen Wilhelmina. The two types of this stamp are described as are the overprints on the same stamp during the Japanese occupation from 1942-45. Double and inverted overprints appeared in 1983. In 1998 examples were submitted to the Dutch expert committee who concluded that they were forgeries. More have been discovered since, and the details of the forgeries and their distinction from genuine stamps are set out.

Expertising Postal History

FFE #4

Expertising Postal History

Class: PH

Edric Charles Druce

In considering expert groups advising juries at World and FIAP exhibitions the writer asks questions about items of postal history. Does it look right, is the stamp genuine and is the rate right are three important questions. Four covers are considered in this context, Jeffryes' forged Sydney views, an eight pence Laureate which is genuine but doesn't belong, and analysis of a certificate follow. The writer is disturbed where certificates of genuineness are issued to genuine items for the wrong reasons and with the wrong postal history conclusions. Two items from Australia to the United Kingdom are considered in this context.

Provenance is a guarantee of authenticity. True or False?

FFE #4

Provenance is a guarantee of authenticity. True or False?

Class: PH

Charles J.G. Verge, FRPSC

Inclusion in great collections of the past does not guarantee that an item is genuine. A double weight cover with two genuine six pence stamps (Scott and SG #2) sent from Canada to New York in 1851 was expertised in 1997 and 1998, and one of the stamps was certificated as not belonging. It had been in a series of star collections. A second item described as posted on 2nd February 1855 with twelve six pence (Scott #5), and in three "great" collections, is shown to be from 1858. The writer urges collectors to have a questioning mind, and to seek expertising before an expert team requests it.

The small queens of Canada – examples of good and bad

FFE #4

The small queens of Canada - examples of good and bad

Class: PH

Charles J.G. Verge, FRPSC

Examples of bisected and imperforate Small Queen issues of Canada are shown. The bisected two cents from 1886 was unauthorised, but is good. The imperforate 2 cents used in 1897, might be right, but isn't. Certificates are required for all unusual usages for this issue.

Sicily 1859-60. A fake cover and four genuine ones

FFE #4

Sicily 1859-60. A fake cover and four genuine ones

Class: PH

Francesco Lombardo, AISP MRPSL

A Ferdinand II cover from Sicily to Florence is shown with a five Grana vermilion stamp. The canceller, the postmark, the rate and the ink are all wrong. There was no ship on the date in question, and there should have been postage due. The cover is discussed and four genuine items are illustrated and explained .

Postmarks. Genuine, false, or both?

FFE #4

Postmarks. Genuine, false, or both?

Class: TR

Erwin Steinbrüchel

With reference to Switzerland, but acknowledging that his conclusions must be true for other countries, the author considers postmarks. He distinguishes between postmarks which served a genuine postal purpose, and "postmarks" printed on stamps for philatelic purposes. The latter may be contemporary or backdated, and different ink may be used. Forged and faked postmarks are addressed including those made by ink jet printer or photocopier. Extensive description and illustration, accompanied by discussion of the characteristics of printed postmarks is supplemented by proposals on pricing items cancelled for purposes which were not postal.

New fakes on the Italian market

FFE #4

New fakes on the Italian market

Class: TR

Georgio Colla Asinelli

Dangerously deceptive forgeries of Italian stamps are illustrated. These include the 20 Centesimi green wedding issue of the Kingdom of Italy, and others, which are described. The technique of the forger involves bleaching low values in the same size and perforation, and printing on the resulting blank paper. The writer refers to forgeries of French stamps emanating from the same print shop.

About the double overprints of Poland – Michel 131 DD

FFE #4

About the double overprints of Poland - Michel 131 DD

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann

The methodology for the 1919 overprinting of Mi. 99, the 7½ Pfennig Germania stamp, with new values and Poczta Polska in Posen to produce Mi. 130, 131 and 132 is described. The consequential double overprints are explained. The types and plating the stamps is described, and Mi. 131DD is divided into two types.

Genuine – but what?

FFE #4

Genuine - but what?

Class: PH

Ernst M. Cohn

The writer distinguishes expertising stamps from expertising postal history. In the latter case two otherwise identical covers may in fact be quite different. With reference to mail carried by smuggler, mail cart, balloon, and by diplomat from Paris in the siege of 1870, and by courier from Budapest to Aachen or air and submarine from the USA to Germany in the First World War, the postal history of a series of covers is revealed. Expertising covers, in the sense of extracting their true postal history, demands broad knowledge, art and science. Experts like these deserve the highest philatelic esteem.

The ‘Chameleon’ cover

FFE #4

The 'Chameleon' cover

Class: PH

Peter Meyer

Three Brazilian covers with 90 Réis Bulls Eye and PARANAGUÁ cancels are described. The first is from 1973 sold as genuine but described by an expert subsequently as a creation to deceive collectors. A second, which may be the same, was sold in the same year. In 1988 a third appeared, and on expertising was described as a fake. In 1991 the same cover came into the hands of the author. The first and the last are in fact the same cover with later additions. Both are illustrated, and the deception and errors described.

FFE #4

'In dubio pro reo' in expert certification?

Class: Other

Felix Winterstein CPhH

Contrary to the principles of Roman Law which determines that where there is doubt favour the accused, in expertising the opposite must be the norm, which is that doubt goes against the accused. The author casts doubt on expert judgements which in their neglect of care and prudence fail to protect the purchaser and shift the burden of proof from the expert to the collector.

Alterations by R.E.P. Maier to pre-adhesive letters of the Netherlands

FFE #4

Alterations by R.E.P. Maier to pre-adhesive letters of the Netherlands

Class: PH

H.W. van der Vlist

The article lists and illustrates the fakes, forgeries, "improvements" and manipulations of Raul Eduard Philip Maier who was tried in the Netherland in 1963. These affect many items from the Dutch East Indies. Maier's stolen and embezzled letters are found in collections throughout the world.

Identifying genuine Buenos Aires “barquitos” – The surest way

FFE #4

Identifying genuine Buenos Aires "barquitos" - The surest way

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan

The Buenos Aries "barquitos" or little ships are extensively forged. The stamps can be plated and an entire plate reconstruction of the 2 Pesos is illustrated. Photographic reproductions exist; therefore paper and size are two other tests to be used. These are explained and illustrated.

The first Zeppelin-mail forgery

FFE #4

The first Zeppelin-mail forgery

Class: PH

Dieter Leder

The story that the first mail carried by Zeppelin was on the four hour fourth flight of LZ 3 on 25th September 1907 when mail was dropped over Romanshorn in Switzerland is shown not to be true. The flight details are reported and the improbability of a mail drop explained. The postcard sent to the USA by the mechanic Laburda and marked "This card was found in a field at Romanshorn2 is shown to be an ordinary postcard, probably posted at the harbour Friedrichshafen in Germany, on 27th September, and that the manuscript addition making it the first Zeppelin mail, is a forgery. Rate, postmark, and language are the key elements in disclosing the forgery, together with historical context.

FFE #5

Fakes, forgeries and youth philately

Class: Other

Michael Madesker R.D.P., FRPSL, FRPSC

The F.I.P. Commission on Youth Philately has an internal expertising committee for Youth exhibits. The article warns that forgeries in Youth exhibits are mostly augmentations, such as improved postmarks, heightened colours and the addition of addresses to previously unaddressed material. Of greatest concern is the use of undesirable issues, and the commission advocates the use of catalogues to avoid these. Wrongdoers in the lowest age group are unlikely to be punished, rather they are educated. The other age groups are subject to the same sanctions as seniors.

Japanese forgeries of non-Japanese stamps

FFE #5

Japanese forgeries of non-Japanese stamps

Class: TR

Varro E. Tyler † A.I.E.P.

Kamigata, a Japanese dealer in the 1890s and 1900s forged Asian stamps for sale to tourists. Some were deceptive. He also forged non-Asian stamps. At first it was believed that these were imported and resold by him. In 1954, in a publication limited to 18 copies, and bearing 20 actual examples, it was demonstrated that these were his own productions. The author was sent a copy in 1986. Some are cancelled with partial circular cancels bearing the letters IMITATION. Most designs are crude. The article lists examples seen from 27 countries, and asks for readers to provide further information.

Mulready facsimiles

FFE #5

Mulready facsimiles

Class: PST

Alan Huggins R.D.P., A.I.E.P.

The author describes Mulready facsimiles produced by six publishers. All are illustrated, and are easily distinguished as forgeries since all lack the Dickinson security threads. However facsimiles by Brinkman have been seen exhibited as originals; hence the article and illustrations.

20 MR 76 Forgeries of the city post of Istanbul

FFE #5

20 MR 76 Forgeries of the city post of Istanbul

Class: PH

Otto Hornung R.D.P.

Beware the date 20 MR 76 on covers of the Istanbul City Post. With an eminent background in Turkish philately, the author began his collection of the Istanbul City Post which ran from 1870 to 1884. One cover described was dated on arrival, 30th September 1868 or 69. There was no city post at this time, and the City Post hand stamp was dated 20 MR 76. At Corinphila and ISFILA in 2001 two more covers with the same date were seen. These are not new forgeries, and the covers were genuine before the forger "improved" them. One other manipulated cover is described and all are illustrated.

Forged registered letters Liepäja – Ventspils, 1945

FFE #5

Forged registered letters Liepäja - Ventspils, 1945

Class: PH

Harry v Hofman FRPSL, A.I.E.P. Wilhelm van Loo BPP

Simultaneously at many auctions in 2000, registered covers from 1945 in Latvia appeared. These were franked with overprinted Courland stamps together with Reichspost, particularly commemorative, stamps. Given the state of the war and the "Courland Encirclement", these are unbelievable, but they also have attributes which allow them to be shown as forgeries. These include identical handwriting in addresses, incorrect and anachronistic address forms, and incorrect frankings. Auction houses in Sweden, Germany, and Switzerland indicate that these are all from the same source in Berlin.

Modern techniques help everyone

FFE #5

Modern techniques help everyone

Class: Other

Dieter Leder

On the use of computers in expertising. With a computer a scanner and graphics software overprints on Finnish ZEPPELIN 1930 are compared. The methodology is described in which one overprint is overlaid on a known genuine overprint in a step by step guide.

Large Hermes heads of Greece: 1861 Paris print final proofs sold as issued stamp

FFE #5

Large Hermes heads of Greece: 1861 Paris print final proofs sold as issued stamp

Class: TR

Michael Tseriotis A.I.E.P.

The large Hermes heads of Greece were engraved in Paris by Albert Barre. A perfectionist, he made a large number of final proofs which are hard to distinguish from the issued stamps where both have no gum. The only guarantee of an issued stamp from the 1861 Paris printing is that it has gum. Over many years gum has been added to proofs by dealers and swindlers to allow them to sell them as issued stamps with full gum. Some with smooth and thin gum are easy to detect. Others are very dangerous. Degrees of rarity are described for each value. There are few single examples with false cancellation. Multiples larger than a pair are rare. A 20 lepta block of four offered with a first day cancellation in Greece was determined by comparison to be the same as an unpostmarked item described as a final proof in Switzerland in 1992. At almost the same time another, falsely cancelled block of the 10 lepta was offered in Athens. The source was the same and is under observation. Great care is to be taken in buying used 1 lepton stamps in singles or in multiples.

New German postal forgeries part 1

FFE #5

New German postal forgeries part 1

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen BPP, Wilhelm van Loo BPP

There have been forgeries designed to defraud the German post office for many years. The situation was bad in the 1990s. Offset printings of current stamps had flooded the market prior to September 2001. The author considers the situation unlikely to improve. Five stamps are examined and illustrated: Mi. 1756; Mi.1939; Mi.1935; Mi. 2013; and Mi. 2026.

Serbia 1866/80. Franked newspapers, genuine and fake

FFE #5

Serbia 1866/80. Franked newspapers, genuine and fake

Class: PH

Jovan Velickovic A.I.E.P

Serbia newspaper stamps from 1866/9 and 1869/80 used on whole newspapers or complete fronts are rare. Six examples recorded over twenty years are considered, four of which are forgeries. The rates and usage are described, and the degrees of rarity are discussed, as is the reason for this situation which include the ephemeral nature of newspapers and the exigencies of war. The "Bosanski Vjesnik" from 13th August 1866 is described and illustrated, and considered to be a forgery. Misuse of genuine cancellers is known between 1890 and 1930, and the canceller used here may be an example. The "Seljak" newspaper advertisement is described as it meets all of the tests for genuineness: the item is from the right time; the rate is correct; the address is correct; the printing of the stamp is from the correct time; a missing piece of paper from the edge of a fold is found on the reverse of the stamp. The "Srpske Novine" dated 20th January 1873 is addressed to a non-existent bank, and false, while another copy dated 23rd December 1873 is correct. The "Radnik" of 31st March 1872 was a 'star' item, but in the opinion of the author, notwithstanding certificates, is false. The canceller is from the wrong period, and the stamps are not tied. Another copy of the same newspaper from 3rd March 1872 is known but has not been examined by the writer, despite a request for a colour copy. Finally a "Srpske Novine" dated 26th November 187? has stamps which are not tied and not from the right time. The author believes that a bundle of "Radnik" newspapers were found and have been used to create forgeries.

Tampering

FFE #5

Tampering

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarra Payá A.I.E.P.

Manipulated copies of the Spanish 1865 12 Cuartos imperforate with inverted frame, and the unissued imperforate 4 Cuartos pale blue are considered. Sperati bleached the centre of the 12 Cuartos and reprinted it inverted. The first subject of the article was produced in a similar way and its distinctive characteristics are described. The origin of the 4 Cuartos is explained, and single stamps are described, both genuine, in pale blue (Type I), and with perforations cut off, in darker blue (Type II). A cover bearing the darker blue, type II stamp, lifted, replaced with clipped perforations, but genuine postmark is illustrated. The colour and type are wrong, and there is a gap around the stamp between the edge and the canceller where the perforations were removed.

First issue of Kingdom of Saudi Arabian stamp (proclamation of Amir Saud)

FFE #5

First issue of Kingdom of Saudi Arabian stamp (proclamation of Amir Saud)

Class: TR

Mohammed K. Safdar

The characteristics of genuine and forged examples of the 1934 Proclamation of Emir Saud as Heir Apparent of Saudi Arabia, are listed in tabular form. All are illustrated.

Suriname: Princess Wilhelmina forgeries

FFE #5

Suriname: Princess Wilhelmina forgeries

Class: TR

Richard Wheatley FRPSL

International cooperation leads to a mystery being solved. The writer purchased six Surinam used Princess Wilhelmina stamps, correctly described as forgeries, and allegedly produced by a chocolate manufacturer for advertising purposes in the 1920s. The printing process differs from the original and the perforation is not the same. Research demonstrated these to have been produced in Lausanne by a French forger and that the number of forgeries in circulation probably equalled the number of genuine stamps. The literature mentioned no postmark. These were cancelled and the canceller was reconstructed and reproduced in The Netherlands Philatelist. Three other cancels were revealed in correspondence from the USA, Scotland and The Netherlands, but no chocolate manufacturer.

Argentina 1862 issue, 15c. without accent on the U of Republica

FFE #5

Argentina 1862 issue, 15c. without accent on the U of Republica

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan A.I.E.P

The two types of the 1862 Argentina "small shield" issue are described. In position 51 of the 15 centavos the U in Republica appears without an accent. 375 sheets were printed, and estimated 90% have been lost, leaving this is one of the rarest Argentinean stamps and thus a target for forgers. The Sperati forgeries are shown with one other, and the tell tale signs of the genuine stamp are reproduced from the Kneitschel catalogue.

Forgeries of handwritten indications on old letters

FFE #5

Forgeries of handwritten indications on old letters

Class: PH

Paolo Vollmeier R.D.P.,A.I.E.P.

Modern additions to early letters are illustrated, the writer regrets that genuine letters have forged additions, such as the Cross of St Andrew and the Gallows, to make them more interesting to postal historians.

San Marino – An altered cover and a “phantasy” cover

FFE #5

San Marino - An altered cover and a "phantasy" cover

Class: TR

Vito Salierno

In the early days of postal history covers were manipulated by the removal of unsightly stamps and the addition of interesting values to make three and four colour covers leading to incorrect rates. Two are considered here. One from 19th November 1862 from San Marino to Venice is shown in its original and manipulated state. The other was probably produced by a German dealer Otto Bickel. It bears three Italian, six San Marino, and a Sardinian stamp. The stamps complied with no known rate, the Sardinian stamp was invalidated on 31st December 1863, but the cover arrived in Saltzburg despite being a philatelic fantasy.

Faked entires from Venezuela 1859-1872

FFE #5

Faked entires from Venezuela 1859-1872

Class: TR

Kurt E. Kimmel A.I.E.P.

Six manipulated items which have been offered for sale, and sold, as genuine are described. The first a 2 Reales bisect with a false postmark, the second with an additional r Reales stamp, the third with an incorrect franking including an added bisect and added "handstamps", and the fourth with an impossible postmark. This example, the fifth and the sixth are addressed to "Gaden and Klipsch", Bordeaux. This archive is the source of many items with added adhesives, and great care is essential. The fifth item has a forged canceller distinguished by incorrect lettering and the last has added adhesives, genuinely postmarked, but not on this cover. The author warns that most mixed frankings are dangerous, that most mixed franking HAPAG covers with Venezuelan stamps are manipulated, and should be treated with caution, even when offered with certificates. Expert knowledge, and reference material are required if the collector is to judge the material and its certification correctly.

The ten most important Canadian fakes for the last 30 years

FFE #5

The ten most important Canadian fakes for the last 30 years

Class: TR

Richard Gratton FRPSC, AEP, A.I.P.A., AQEP

Ten modern fakes of Canadian stamps with missing colours or perforations from 1971to 1992 are illustrated and described. The information is summarised in a table together with numbers of genuine and forged examples known to the author since 1988. Article in French.

Faked postmark on Michel DR No 429 with railway postmark

FFE #5

Faked postmark on Michel DR No 429 with railway postmark

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Following reports of forgeries of Mi. 429 and 434, a check on examples known to a collector revealed a forged LEIPZIP-HAMBURG BAHNPOST canceller for Z. - - 84 8.2.30. The writer warns that it must be suspected that this canceller is in private hands, and that further fakes are likely.

Forgery of the 1948 West Berlin Michel Nos 62 and 63

FFE #5

Forgery of the 1948 West Berlin Michel Nos 62 and 63

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Forged examples of these stamps are described and their characteristics listed in a table. The forged examples are the 20 and 30 pfennig values. The writer suspects that the 10 pfennig value may appear as a forgery since these set purchased contained a genuine and two forged stamps. Perforations differ as does the appearance under UV light.

Faroe Islands 1941

FFE #5

Faroe Islands 1941

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller A.I.E.P.

A genuine 10 øre Franco Betalt cover to Thorhavn was expertised by the writer. Following its sale in two auction houses, it was consigned by Arne Damkjær for sale in Switzerland. A further FRANCO BETALT mark with manuscript 30 and registration labels had been added. At the request of the writer it was re-expertised, signed FALSCH, and removed from the auction. The cover is illustrated in its original and manipulated states.

Greenland 1921

FFE #5

Greenland 1921

Class: PH

Carl Aage Møller A.I.E.P.

A parcel card with 10 øre Pakke-Porto stamp belonging to a German collector was sold at auction to Arne Damkjær. The 10 øre stamp was removed and four stamps of the 1905 issue were added and cancelled with a forged postmark. It was wrongly issued with an expert certificate and consigned for sale in Switzerland. At the request of the writer it was re-expertised, signed FALSCH, and removed from the auction. The card is illustrated in its original and manipulated states.

Denmark/Greenland 1937

FFE #5

Denmark/Greenland 1937

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller A.I.E.P.

A parcel card bearing a 40 øre caravelle stamp was sold as part of a collection in Germany in the early 1990s. After purchase by Arne Damkjær 3 copies of the 20 øre Pakke-Porto stamps were added, date and weight were changed and the manipulated item submitted for expertising to the writer, who issued a certificate in 1996. In 1907 Eric Wowern issued a certificate indicating that the card might be a fake. After being unsold at several auctions it was offered in Switzerland and the writer offered to re-expertise the item. Further examination revealed the deception and it was expertised as a fake, and removed from the auction. The card is illustrated in its original and manipulated states.

The riddle of the Cavalla surcharges of 1913

FFE #5

The riddle of the Cavalla surcharges of 1913

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin FRPSL, TM, A.I.E.P.

Bulgarian stamps were surcharged with Greek values by hand in Cavalla following the Second Balkan war of 1913. The background to the issue is explained and the "dramatis personae" listed. The literature of 1919-20, and later, is referred to, and two conflicting versions of events relating to the production of these stamps are revealed. The article considers these two versions using the evidence of the material, and reaches conclusions which are set out. The conclusions are that there are genuine covers and cards which went through the post to their destination. Desirable and rare. There are surcharges of the Toccos second printing on pieces or official Bulgarian postal envelopes "cancelled with the connivance of postal officials in Cavalla". Of doubtful philatelic value. There are forged surcharges on pieces or official Bulgarian postal envelopes with forged cancellations. Philatelically valueless.

The engraved forgeries of Ceylon revisited

FFE #5

The engraved forgeries of Ceylon revisited

Class: TR

Chris Harman, Patrick Pearson R.D.P., Carl Walske

An article in FFE 4 (pp6-8) sought to identify the makers of forgeries of the Ceylon octagonal stamps. The present article notes that all forgeries of the Ceylon octagonals previously illustrated are by George Kirke Jeffryes, whose activities are described. Forgeries by Jeffryes and Erasmo Oneglia of Turin are considered and described in detail with reference to archive material at the Royal Philatelic Society of London. The research is summarised and listed for material known to have originated with both of the forgers. References to earlier publications and research are included as footnotes.

“Mythical” falsification of frankings

FFE #5

"Mythical" falsification of frankings

Class: PH

Emil Rellstab A.I.E.P.

Expert opinions demand that the distance travelled and the weight of a letter are verified, and that the period of use of the stamp is known. Two examples demonstrate this. "Zürich 4" was valid only within urban Zürich. Mail to destinations outside this area cost 6 Rappen. A folded letter with a single "Zürich 4" addressed to Kloten is clearly wrong, but has an expert history going back 50 years. It was not until 1989 that it was shown to be a forgery. A cover from Niederglatt to Zürich with a bisected and single 5 Rappen stamp was sent on 24th April 1855. From 1st January 1852 the rate was 10 Rappen, and no fractional rate values existed after this date. The cover was withdrawn from circulation at the beginning of 2000.

Some Italian States fakes and forgeries

FFE #5

Some Italian States fakes and forgeries

Class: PH

Paolo Vaccari

Seven covers from Italian states are described. Each has been illustrated in Vaccari Magazie, and each has been manipulated in some way by the removal, replacement or addition of stamps, by "improvements" in postmarks or paper or by the addition of forged postmarks. Covers are shown and described in full from The Duchy of Modena, The Provisional Government of Parma, The Papal States and The Provisional Government of the Romagne. Illustrations are shown in each case before and after manipulation.

Liberia – Forgeries of SG 328-31

FFE #5

Liberia - Forgeries of SG 328-31

Class: TR

Luciano Varaschini

2 Cent and 5 Cent Liberian stamps were locally overprinted 1 Cent and 2 Cents respectively in 1916. There is speculation as to why this was necessary, and this is discussed. There were eleven types of surcharge with the eleventh being the most rare, and it has thus attracted the attention of forgers. The characteristics of the forgeries are described, and it is noted that all cancelled to order (CTO) examples are forgeries, since this cancellation was made in London, and only mint stamps were sent to Liberia. Most forgeries are CTO, but are still a threat to collectors due to the many types of CTO used on Liberian stamps.

The counterfeit of the E.T/ÓÌÕÔÍÇ overprint

FFE #5

The counterfeit of the E.T/ÓÌÕÔÍÇ overprint

Class: TR

Michalis E Tsirónis

In May 1919 Greek forces occupied Smyrna. For a brief period Greek stamps were overprinted. Following approval for the overprint on 13th June, it was rescinded on 14th June resulting in a very short period of use, and small number of stamps in total. The overprints are described in technical terms and genuine copies are compared with the forgeries both in text and detailed illustration. A bibliography is provided.

Pre-adhesive fakes

FFE #5

Pre-adhesive fakes

Class: PH

Edoardo P. Ohnmeiss ASPOT

With greater interest by postal historians in the pre-stamp period, the writer proposes that this period is divided between the period of manuscript markings, namely the Precursory period, and the use of handstamps, namely the Pre-adhesive period. Examples from the latter period, the handstamps of the Napoleonic postal departments in Italy are presented. These were in use for many years after the occupation had ceased. Rarity of some handstamps from the Napoleonic period has caused forgers to change dates on material used after 1814. These can be demonstrated under UV light or from internal evidence of contents. Nine covers with false DÉBOURSÉ handstamps have been identified, and identification of these is discussed. The use of historical and postal analysis of DÉBOURSÉ handstamps is explained, and significant differences in size between the genuine and false marks are pointed out.

The 80 days of Zara. Zara – a report on the period and its history

FFE #5

The 80 days of Zara. Zara - a report on the period and its history

Class: TR

Emil E. Ludin A.I.E.P.

The complex origins of the overprints on Italian stamps in Zara (Zadar) from September to December 1943 are explained. This closely written explanation examines the various stories that have grown up around the 90 day issue, and demonstrates the truth or otherwise of these stories. The wartime history of the town, its evacuation, and subsequent rôle in the war are chronicled. The setting used for the overprint was broken up under supervision after the printing process was complete. This makes expertising easier since reprints and different settings do not exist. From November and December 1943 significant quantities of fakes were circulating, particularly in the USA. Identification of the forgeries is explained, both through observation of letter shapes, and through the use of UV light, as is their certification. The diagonal overprint ZARA is reported to be a fantasy.

Imperial Russia: forgeries of coat of arms stamps with inverted centre

FFE #5

Imperial Russia: forgeries of coat of arms stamps with inverted centre

Class: TR

Zbigniew S. Mikulski A.I.E.P., Ortwin Greis A.I.E.P..

Many Imperial Russian inverted coat of arms stamps are very rare, there are forgeries and fakes, and preliminary expertisation is essential before purchase. Cut out and inverted centres are easily detectable using magnification, preferably by microscope. Forgers now use advanced techniques including cleaning off and reprinting the centre. Nine examples from a reference collection were found to be false, and the characteristics of these forgeries are described in detail. Collectors are warned about the unscrupulous use of words such as "essay, rarity, proof and unique item". These printing forgeries from the East for collectors in the West are supplemented by others using cut out techniques to be described in a later article.

Australia the story of SG 0126a

FFE #5

Australia the story of SG 0126a

Class: TR

Krysztof Ceremuga A.I.E.P

Australian stamps were overprinted "OS" during 1931-33 for official use. In 1999 a five pence orange brown overprinted stamp was found on small multiple watermarked paper rather than C of A watermark. After catalogue listing by Gibbons and Scott, a fanfare in the press, and special display at Australia 99, the author's certificate states that the stamp is forged. The article demonstrates how his opinion is reached. The overprint in this position on genuine stamps is described; the colour of the ink, the postmark, and the fact that the postmark is under the overprint demonstrate that the stamp is a primitive forgery.

Australia the story of SG 0126a

FFE #5

Australia the story of SG 0126a

Class: TR

Krysztof Ceremuga A.I.E.P

Australian stamps were overprinted "OS" during 1931-33 for official use. In 1999 a five pence orange brown overprinted stamp was found on small multiple watermarked paper rather than C of A watermark. After catalogue listing by Gibbons and Scott, a fanfare in the press, and special display at Australia 99, the author's certificate states that the stamp is forged. The article demonstrates how his opinion is reached. The overprint in this position on genuine stamps is described; the colour of the ink, the postmark, and the fact that the postmark is under the overprint demonstrate that the stamp is a primitive forgery.

SCADTA under the magnifying glass

FFE #5

SCADTA under the magnifying glass

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeldt

SCADTA stamps have always been of interest and there are many forgeries, some of them before 1940, others from 1979-90. Renewed recent interest, and high prices have provoked a new wave of forgeries, especially those bearing the provision "R" hand stamps. The writer has examined 80 such covers and considers only 10% to be genuine. The article lists, explains and illustrates in twelve pages examples of these forgeries.

FFE #6

Wondrous Transformations (continued from FFE No.1)

Class: TR

Karl-Albert Louis FRPSL, A.I.E.P.

An extensive article demonstrating the manipulation of Great Britain stamps 1840-1882 showing through photographic evidence, the original and 'improved' material. Sixty-seven illustrations. Follows on from previous article in FFE #1 in which thirty-four illustrated and annotated examples (22 GB, 12 NL) of manipulations of rare classic material. Evidence is mainly gathered by comparative study of auction catalogues, old and new. Even unique and beautiful items are demonstrably "improved". Various types of manipulations are shown.

FFE #6

From the Baltic - Even small cattle make manure

Class: PH

Harry v. Hofmann FRPSL, A.I.E.P.

A fieldpost letter dated 27th March 1943 sent to Königsburg is described and shown to be a forgery, as is a postcard sent to the same address. The distinction between forged and genuine German fieldpost marks is illustrated. Note that other similar items are to be found.

FFE #6

Egyptian postage due covers of 1898

Class: PH

Peter A.S. Smith FRPSL, A.I.E.P.

Genuine postage due covers from the Egyptian element of the Anglo-Egyptian 1898 campaign to the Sudan are rare. Fake covers were produced mainly by Victor Nahman and these regularly appear in dealers' lists and at auction. These well made forgeries datestamped Halfa, Merowi, Arbara and Darmali are described and demonstrated by comparison with genuine postmarks.

FFE #6

Perspectives on expertisers

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

The history of expertising and the case for precision and change are developed in an extensive article which i.a. considers expertising in classical philately in comparison with the demands of expertising in postal history. There is a case for honest doubt to be recorded on certificates, for experts to be confined to their areas of specialism, for museums to be more willing to accept their material being judged, and for collectors to be more aware of the limitations of expert opinion. However, and expert expertiser is part of the philatelic elite.

FFE #6

Comment on Ernst Cohn's observations on the BPP in his article "Perspectives on expertisers"

Class: Other

Dr. Hans-Karl Penning, President BPP

The President of the BPP defends the rules of the organisation in respect of the comments made by Ernst Cohn.

FFE #6

A note for your attention

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua A.I.E.P.

Stamps and postal history items from Spain a e illustrated and explained in their original and subsequently manipulated states. These include perforated stamps of the 1865 issue, and letters from Avila, Galicia Puebla, to Cuba, from Fernando Po, to Cebu and from Manila during the classical period.

FFE #6

Identifying forged type

Class: Other

Roy A. Dehn

An exposition on the naming of parts and the structure of typefaces.

FFE #6

The French 40 c. postage due

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun R.D.P., A.I.E.P.

On the Sperati forgeries of the French 40 c postage due of September 1871.

FFE #6

A rather clever fake cover

Class: PH

David MacDonnell A.I.E.P.

In praise of Eliot Perry, a pioneer in the logical approach to expertising with particular reference to a cover bearing Scott # 160 and # 153, from Salem Massachusetts to Zanzibar in 1873 or later.

FFE #6

Forgery of Bolivian postage stamps

Class: TR

Eugenio von Boeck

The postal forgery of Bolivian stamps in 1894 is recalled and the modern postal forgery of the 15 Boliviano UPAEP, the 2 Boliviano Ceramica Cochabamba, and 6 Boliviano Cristo de la Concordia are reported.

FFE #6

New German Postal forgeries part II

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen FRPSL, AEP, Wilhelm van Loo BPP

A second postal forgery of the 110 Pf Schloss Bellevue, a third of the 100 Pf Marlene Dietrich, the 1200 year anniversary of the Bishopric of Paderborn (10th June 1999), the International Year of Senior Citizens (Mi. 2027), Europa 2000 (Mi. 2213), and the 50th Anniversary of the Frauenhofer Society (Mi. 2038), are reported and the challenge facing the German post office reviewed.

FFE #6

The Canary Islands without number

Class: TR

José Llach A.I.E.P.

Forgeries of stamps overprinted to commemorate the visit of General Franco to the Canary Islands in October 1950. Insist on a certificate for this stamp Mi. 9871; Edifil 1083.

FFE #6

The 1906 forst Worldwide Olympic postmarks ΑΚΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ (Acropolis), ΖΑΠΠΕΙΟΝ (Zappeion), ΣΤΑΔΙΟΝ (Satdion) and their counterfeits

Class: PH

Michalis E. Tsironis

1906, the 10th anniversary of the first modern Olympic games in Athens, saw the second issue of commemorative Olympic postage stamps, and its first commemorative postmarks. The postmarks, their usage and forgeries are illustrated and described by comparison with genuine marks. A comprehensive bibliography and list of collections concludes the piece.

FFE #6

The acceptable face of conservation of philatelic material

Class: Other

Patrick Pearson R.D.P., A.I.E.P.

The stabilisation of a local letter sheet fro Ceylon is described as an acceptable form of conservation in contrast to an enhanced 1st May 1840 Penny Black cover illustrated in FFE #1. Precise instructions must be given to conservators to avoid damage.

FFE #6

"Special X-ray techniques for examining stamps and covers"

Class: Other

Edward M. Liston A.I.E.P.

The use of X-ray diffraction, fluorescence and transmission are described in determining paper, pigment and repairs with references to other publications on the subject.

FFE #6

Japanese forgeries of non-Japanese stamps by Varro E. Tyler

Class: TR

Richard Wheatley FRPSL

Illustration and discussion of the Japanese Kamigata forgeries of Suez Canal stamps including a forged cover and cancellations.

FFE #6

Forged Hungarian pre-stamp covers

Class: PH

Dénes Czirók MRPSL

Production of forged Hungarian pre-stamp covers emanates from a number of forgery workshops. BARANYAVÁR, P.CSEKLÉSZ, CSONGRÁD, SZOLNOK, ÉRSEKÚVÁR, PÁPA, GYŐR, KÖRMÖTZBÁNYA, NEUDORF, ÁCS, VIZSOLY, and Th. SAMBOKRET are marks found on several hundred covers now distributed around the world. Check your collection.

FFE #6

Alpenvorland Adria

Class: TR

David B. Ganse

The background to the 1945 Alpenvorland - Adria stamps, and that of those issued for Provinz Laibach is related. The disputes over, and judgements on the Alpenvorland - Adria issue are revisited at length, and the question of whether these are fakes, forgeries or bogus is addressed. The author concludes that they must have been produced from official resources, and are in fact an unissued set from the closing days of the Second World War.

FFE #6

A plea for the consideration of small values

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann A.I.E.P.

An extended request for further information on issue dates, first usage and perforation varieties from the Polish inflation period. MI. numbers 171, 172, 173, 180, 181, 182, 183 and 184 are referred to. Usage before reported issue date is a question also in relation to the Upper Silesia plebiscite overprints. Collectors of Poland are urged to examine their collections and to report anomalies.

FFE #6

Spectroscopic examinations of stamps' colours for age assessment and authentication

Class: Other

Robert Neunteufel

The use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (EDF in determining the status of black handstamps from the 18th and 19th centuries is discussed. The composition of inks historically and in more modern times is set out, and the results from a series of 32 covers judged by philatelists and this technology are reported. The former could make no determination on four covers while the latter produced a result in all cases, with three 'genuine' philatelic judgements found false, and one forged judgement found to be genuine. This technology has applications also in judging stamps.

FFE #6

An interesting

Class: PST

Mario D. Kurchan A.I.E.P.

5 c postal stationery, April 1876 - February 1877 is shown unused, with a forged cancellation, and faked.

FFE #6

The myth of the 5 c surcharge in the Paraguay 1 Real rose of 1878

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan A.I.E.P.

The 1878 one Real rose of Paraguay surcharged with 5 (cents) in blue is a forgery. The rectangular canceller with date ending in 7 8 is shown to be false.

FFE #6

Identification of covers with Sinkiang provisional airmail stamps - formation of the Northwest airline and the issuance and use of Sinkiang provisional airmail stamps.

Class: Aero

David Lu FRPSL A.I.E.P.

The history, usage, postage rates and flights of the 1932-33 provisional Sinkiang airmail stamps (SG 83-86; Scott C1-4) is presented. All cancellers are illustrated since comparison with genuine stamps is the best evidence of forgery. Dates of flights are tabulated, rates and addresses are listed, and many western and Chinese style covers are reviewed with their provenance, and the reasons for judging them false are given. An extensive bibliography and auction catalogue list completes the article.

FFE #2

Restoration

Class: Other

A. Ronald Butler

The author discusses acceptable restoration of fine art and unacceptable repair of philatelic material. While a collector may consider repairing a damaged, but exceptional item, the decision may have been taken for him already by a previous owner. In this context an unadopted essay by William Bell for the 1857 "Emblems" issue for the Colony of Victoria is discussed. Restored items appropriately labelled may be included in exhibitions, but if not declared, their inclusion must down grade the exhibit.

FFE #2

Forgeries and Fakes

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

In distinguishing between genuine and forged stamps different printing techniques must be understood - letterpress, recess or gravure, and litho. Forgeries printed by methods other than the original, and those made in the same way as the original are considered. Faking by addition of false overprints or postmarks is discussed in this context, as is faking by removal, as in the addition of perforations. Finally faking by chemical transformation is included. In French, and the English text is a synopsis while captions to the illustrations are not translated.

FFE #2

The stamp is genuine; the obliteration is not

Class: TR

Pierre Guinaud

Forged or faked postmarks ao Swiss sitting Helvetias are the subject of this extensive piece set in the context of the sale of these stamps by the Swiss post office from 1st July 1887. The writer considers the addition of postmarks to this stock, both genuine but antedated and forged. Postal clerks colluded in this, and the known fakes with dates are listed and illustrated, followed by forged Fournier postmarks through to modern marks made by photocopying machines.

FFE #2

Dangerous overprint forgeries on the postage stamps of Yugoslavia from recent years

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

Postage stamps were surcharged in Yugoslavia during the inflation and hyperinflation period ending in January 1994. The sale of bulk stamps by the post office, for example in 1990, allowed large quantities to come into the hands of forgers. Mi. 2142, 1985; Mi. 2363, 1989; Mi. 2557, 1992; are illustrated. More than 40 phantom issues were created for collectors after 1991, and small volume issues of Republika Srpska and the Serbian Republic of Krajina were also forged. Beware of forgeries and falsifications on UN and other official mail from 1992-1996.

FFE #2

Modern techniques help the expert team of the Dutch federation

Class: Other

Pieter F.A. van de Loo

Technical equipment used in the Netherlands is shown. This involves the use of a 'KRONTRON' frame grabber camera, stereo microscope with a revolving 'table' (platen), cold light unit and printer. By overlaying images of forged and genuine items such as postmarks and overprints, forgeries can be identified.

FFE #2

New methods to identify fakes II

Class: Other

Pavel Pittermann, Miroslav Musil

The use of EDF-XRF (X-ray fluorescence) was shown in FFE1. The writer considers the use of infra-red and ultra-violet light with spectral analysis in covers from 1873, 1816 and 1835. Its limitations are demonstrated in the case of the Czech 50/50h DOPLATIT overprint of 1927 (SG D280a). The system is cheaper but the mich more expensive ED-XRF system is required in some cases.

FFE #2

The metamorphosis of the cross

Class: PH

Gérard Desarnaud

An 1877 letter with the 'Sage' type 30 c cancelled JAFFA with a Jerusalem cross is illustrated, as is the much less desirable state of this extremely improved piece. Offered in auction, it was withdrawn, only to be offered by another auction house later.

FFE #2

Faked, forged and falsified space mail

Class: PH

Walter Michael Hopferwieser

Space mail is mail sent to and from the space stations 'Mir' and 'Salyut 6', and to and from Star City near Moscow or the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and other space locations. The characteristics of such mail are discussed and forgeries considered. This extensive article consists primarily of Russian material, but the US moon landing of 1969 (Apollo 11) items from Apollo 14 and controversial mail from Apollo 15 are included. The translation of the German word 'bord' into English 'board' should be replaced in the readers mind by 'ship'.

FFE #2

The cebicitas to France

Class: PH

Michèle Chauvet

Markings on mail sent from Buenos Aries to France via England are discussed. Since it was cheaper to hand mail directly into the British post office in Buenos Aries, such mail franked to this port of departure is very uncommon. However, except for the local franking, the postal marks on internally, franked and unfranked mail are usually identical. Such a letter is considered and its faking unmasked partly by considering the plausibility of its transatlantic transit time.

FFE #2

Fakes and forgeries of the Swedish printing error 20/tretio

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

The origin of the Swedish 20/TRETIO error of 1879 is explained. The distinctive features of the Fournier forgery is illustrated as are subsequent forgeries including one on cover postmarked MAJORNA 18.6.1880. A bibliography is included.

FFE #2

Nicolas Frères

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

Bisected and quadrisected French stamps on covers from Nicholas Fréres during 1870-72 are illustrated, usually cancelled with numeral 1139 and with CORNIMONT postmarks. Despite being judged to be genuine, and being illustrated in specialist works, all are fakes, despite some having expert certification.

FFE #2

Equipment for experts in the House of Philately of the Association of German Philatelists at Bonn

Class: Other

Wilhelm van Loo

The work of the House of Philately in Bonn is explained including its use of the Zeiss Stereomicroscope SV11 with a cold light source, video camera and monitor.

FFE #2

Fibre optic illumination, a practical aid for examiners

Class: Other

Christoph Hertsch

The use of a fibre-optic cold light source with colour filters is described.

FFE #2

Postage stamp auctioneers and experts

Class: Other

Volker Parten

The origin of expertising by auction houses up to the First World War, its development between the wars, and later is explained, as is the development of the general and specialised expert. An auction trade without the use of experts is no longer imaginable.

FFE #2

A Little "Legalese"

Class: Other

Rolf P. Salinger

Legal remedies available to collectors in the United States where a seller fails to make good a buyer's loss in forgeries and manipulated items. Breach of warranty, disclaimers, the statute of limitations, evidence and expert advice are considered. Compensation, recovery of costs, and compromise conclude the piece.

FFE #2

Faking, partial or total

Class: PH

Vincent Pothion

A 1 Fr. 05 c cover from Saigon to Bordeaux from August 1868 is examined. The tariff is incorrect, and the cancellation is faked. A further cover with 'ARMEE DE LA MOSELLE' uses the wrong kind of paper and a photocopier to deceive.

FFE #2

Mauritius - Forgery of the 1861 9d brown embossed envelope

Class: PST

Alan Huggins

The differences between forged and genuine 1861 9d brown embossed postal stationery envelope are illustrated and set out in tabular form.

FFE #2

1948 doar ivri issue - "Popular" forgeries and fakes

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

On 16th May 1948 the 'Doar Ivri' stamp was issued in Israel. Imperforate values, values with tabs, sheetlets and a forged First Day Cover are shown.

FFE #2

Guetemala beware of "Cosmetics" to classic covers

Class: PH

Cécile Gruson

Early Guatemalan covers are scarce. Repair of damaged material is explained with reference to the transformation of a 2 Real cover of 27th January 1879 sent to California. It is shown from Harmer's in 1969, and transformed, at Corinphila in 1984.

FFE #2

The first postal forgery circulated in Cuba

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarro Payá

The history of the introduction of stamps in Puerto Rico and Cuba is explained. The earliest forgery recorded is from 1858 and its identification is explained. A further previously unrecorded unique postal forgery is described.

FFE #2

Limits to expertising

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

What are the limits to bona fide expertising? This question is addressed by reference to standard comparisons with reference material, divergence of opinion, philatelic acceptance of material, and the complications of postal history. Specific items presented are the USA 1847 'Knapp shift'; the Belfort balloon mail of December 1870; 1870 smuggled mail from Metz; the 'Union' and 'Armée de Bretagne' balloon letters of 1870;p and mail carried from the siege of Paris by diplomatic pouch. Expertising is a developing art and science, requiring specialism, training, and facts, and it does have limitations.

FFE #2

Short notes about Argentine forerunners forged handstamps and some Uruguay stamps and maritime covers

Class: PH

Mario D. Kurchan

Elements marking stampless lettersheets with forged postmarks are described and illustrated. The British post office in Montivideo (C28) is considered.

FFE #2

"VII Congress Universal Postal Union". 1920 issue

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

The history of this Spanish issue and its forgeries, manipulations and fantasies are explained with extensive illustration.

FFE #2

BDPH seminar on forgeries

Class: Other

Reinhard Schmidt

The Association of German Philatelists seminar of November 1998 is summarised. This include the protection of collectors, a model contract for stamp swapping clubs and for purchase, the recognition of forgeries, and the use of technology in identifying fakes.

FFE #2

Faked frankings with Zürich Cantonal and transitional issues

Class: PH

Emil Rellstab

The Canton of Zurich issued its first stamps in 1843, and in 1875 a collector in the city was able to acquire many stamps of these early issues from an archive. They were used to create entires with Zurich 4 and 6. Modern techniques reveal these to be fakes, despite previous classification as genuine.

FFE #2

The war of the Pacific. The "Edwar Walker Forgeries"

Class: PH

Jörg Maier

Covers from Chile, from the Pacific War of 1879-1884 addressed to 'Edward Walker' in Lima are demonstrated to be forgeries.

FFE #2

The Bohne sale

Class: Other

Claes Arnup

The Werner Bohne reference collection of forgeries was brought to the market by Postiljonen, the Swedish auction house. Claes Arnrup describes the circumstances, and the sale.

FFE #2

Misuse of (old) marking devices

Class: PH

John Lievsay

The author comments on the use of old cancellers and marking devices to create forgeries. He suggests that these should be donated to expert services or postal museums. A Philadelphia piece of 29th August 1861 with additional forged handstamps is illustrated and described in support of this proposition.

FFE #2

The Connell stamp

Class: TR

Vincent Graves Green Philatelic Research Foundation

The unissued Connell stamp of New Brunswick was sent for expertising and the importance of philatelic literature in this case is presented.

FFE #2

An Obock fake

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

An entire fabrication from Obock dated 25th February 1892 sent to Lyons is described. Other similar items from other colonies may be on the market.

FFE #2

Czechoslovakian stamps and their forgeries 1918-1939

Class: TR

Jan Karásek

A book by Jan Karásek describing all forgeries of Czech stamps from 1919-1939 has been published to critical acclaim.

FFE #2

French-Argentine postal history "letter"

Class: PH

Mario D. Kurchan

A 'Barquito' cover from Buenos Aires dated 12th November 1858 is described with the stamp and its canceller shown to be a forgery.

FFE #3

The stamps of the Suez Canal Co.: Genuine and forged

Class: TR

Peter A.S. Smith FRPSL

Four stamps issued by the Suez Canal Company in 1868 were valid only for 40 days prior to suppression of the postal service on 15th August, and the opening of government post offices on the following day. These are one of the most extensively forged stamps in the world. The types, cancellations and forgeries are described. Only 21 genuine covers are known. There were never any reprints, and the distinguishing marks for genuine and forges stamps areillustrated.

FFE #3

Wenden letters which are nothing like

Class: PH

Harry v. Hofmann BPP, FRPSL

An obvously forged letter from 1912 bearing a Wenden 1863 parcel stamp is illustrated and described. When offered at auction it was described as RRR.

FFE #3

Beware the forged scout machine postmark

Class: TR

Harry v. Hofmann BPP, FRPSL

Forged machine postmarks from Latvia's 1934 scout camp are known. The forgery is described and six points of difference from the genuine cancellation are listed.

FFE #3

The Liepaja bisect

Class: PH

Harry v. Hofmann BPP, FRPSL

The 10 Kopek dragonslayer stamp was bisected for use at Liepaja in Latvia in 1920. Seven postmarks were franked in this way, of which three are in collections. Five points of difference in a forged postmark are described.

FFE #3

Modern methods of expertisation III

Class: Other

Max Hertsch RDP

While expertisation requires experience and knowledge of the material, technical advances have enhanced this. Scanning technology and quartz light have helped. The writer describes the use of carbon 14 beta particle radiation in identifying repairs and improvements.

FFE #3

Argentine stamps: the Rivadavia imperforate 15C.; 1864

Class: TR

Mario D. Kurchan

The identifying characteristics of genuine and forged stamps of this issue are described and illustrated.

FFE #3

Philatelic forgery

Class: Other

Richard J. Weiss

Similarities between identifying fakes in art and philately are noted. Technological advances have provided instruments such as the Raman and infrared microprobes. The Raman probe has become portable and inexpensive and can extract information from pigmentation, gum, paper, overprints, cancellation and manipulation. DNA marks can be placed on art objects making them impossible to reproduce.

FFE #3

ROMANIA: forgeries of the Bull's Head issues of the principality of Moravia

Class: PH

Fritz Heimbüchler

A cover bearing a 27 Parale black on pale rose paper postmarked BAKEU 20/10 has been shown to be a forgery for 25 years, but it still reappears in auction catalogues. Another 108 Parales cover cancelled GALATZ 23/3 is shown also to be faked. Reprints from 1891 made under circumstances as yet unknown are the source of these stamps which are illustrated and described.

FFE #3

Like the heads of Medusa

Class: TR

Pierre Guinaud

The forged rectangular VEVEY canceller was wrongly illustrated in FFE #2. Its distinguishing features are listed and illustrated as it is becoming ubiquitous.

FFE #3

Forgeries or manipulation of Strubel bisects

Class: TR

Erhard Keller

Bisected sitting Helvetia stamps, often 'on piece' are divided into three groups which are considered, illustrated and described in turn. The use of genuine stamps with genuine cancellations, genuine stamps and cancellations with additional hand drawn cancellations, and cancellation forgeries on unused stamps is shown.

FFE #3

When someone uses a razor blade, things become dangerous!

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

Forgeries of the 700th anniversary of St Mary's Church Lübeck can be identified with the use of a watermark detector, perforation gauge and UV lamp. Those from Peter Winter, with FAUX in the lower left front margin have the word removed with a razor blade. These are tabulated and illustrated.

FFE #3

Postmark forgery, "Königsee", on block 10 Deutsches Reich

Class: PH

Jürgen Straub

The circular insert from the machine canceller KÖNIGSEE of 1933 is in private hands and is used for forged cancellations. This is demonstrated through examination of genuine marks and a forged item dated 28 5 37.

FFE #3

Falsification of a stamp of the Federal Republic of Germany: Mi No 1628 F

Class: TR

Jürgen Straub

The 100 Pf 225th anniversary of the jewellery and watch industry (Mi. 1628) of 10th September 1992 is listed with the dark brown colour, Deutsche Bundpost, missing. This is easily faked and is known as such, with expert certificate.

FFE #3

Falsifications on Bolivia stamps

Class: TR

Eugenio von Boeck Parada

Forged overprints and forged stamps of Bolivia from 1925 to 1946 are illustrated, listed and described. These are predominantly overprinted airmail issues with false overprints and cancellations.

FFE #3

Fraudulent use of bisected stamps in the Holy Land

Class: TR

Geo. H. Muentz

Fraudulent and genuine bisected stamps from the Turkish, French, Austrian and British post offices in Palestine are illustrated and described, as are items from the interim period in 1948 and from the State of Israel.

FFE #3

Expertising at the Philatelic Foundation, New York

Class: Other

John E. Lievesay

The work of the Philatelic Foundation of New York, its history and reference collection is considered.

FFE #3

The extent of facelifting performed on a cover - a price factor?

Class: PH

Mag. Klaus Schöpfer

In 1996 a cover from Trieste to Manila (10th August 1857) was correctly described and sold at auction for DM 5700. The filing crease, wrinkled 9 Kreutzer stamp, damaged 2 Kreutzer stamp, and missing 2 Kreutzer stamp were "cured" and the cover offered for sale at auction in 1998. Described as "a cover and destination rarity of the first order, presumably unique", it sold for DM 15000. The author urges registration of defective covers.

FFE #3

Knowledge of history - an important expertizing tool

Class: TR

Zbigniew S. Mikulski

The history of the Boy Scout mail of Warsaw during the rising of 1944 is related. In south Warsaw, blank souvenir cards were created with censor cachets and special handstamps. 'Rarities' were created later by the addition of fictional addresses and messages. Knowledge of history allows the forgeries to be identified since senders in streets over run by German soldiers could not have sent cards. The history of the 1919 'Heinze' forgeries of Poznan overprints is explained and illustrated with both genuine and forged items.

FFE #3

Expert-teams at FIP-exhibitions CHINA 99

Class: Other

N/A

Photographs of the expert team and equipment at China 99.

FFE #3

Modern French postal forgeries made in the period 1990-1998, compared with genuine stamps

Class: TR

H.W. van der Vlist

Genuine stamps and postal forgeries created between 1990 and 1998 are described, illustrated in great detail and comprehensively listed in an extensive piece of research. The first was made for the 'amusement of collectors', but like all of the others was subsequently used to defraud the postal service.

FFE #3

The Arthur Salm Foundation

Class: Other

Bernard A. Henning R.D.P.

The five reports so far published by the Arthur Salm Foundation are listed. These include tests of paper and hinges, lists of non-existent stamp issuing entities, and the chemistry of US pressure sensitive stamps. These are available from the Foundation.

FFE #3

Discovering fakes, forgeries, and bogus postal history

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

Defining fake as genuine, but altered, forgery as counterfeit or imitation, and labels made to look like stamps, and markings made to look like cancellations as bogus, the article considers a range of philatelic items. These include pieces from the French Commune of 1871, World War One Zeppelin flights, the siege of Paris 1870-71, British propaganda forgeries of World War Two (The Himmler heads), and stamps and covers from the Sultanate of Wituland and the nearby Malakote area.

FFE #3

ECUADOR A forgery "authenticated" by the Post Office

Class: TR

Jean-Pierre Mangin

In 1958 the Ecuador post office issued an airmail stamp to mark the Guayaquil philatelic exhibition. The 1866 four Reales illustrated thereon is in fact a forgery! The differences between the genuine and forged stamp are considered.

FFE #3

Scientific detection of philatelic forgeries

Class: Other

Mercer Bristow

The history of the American Philatelic Society expertising service is told, and its technical resources described. This include the CS-16 CrimeScope, a light source used for testing luminescence which excels in showing cleaned cancellations, altered postmarks of counterfeit overprints. 300 volumes of genuine reference material are held for comparison purposes. The APS has seen a significant increase in forgeries produced by laser printers.

FFE #3

Letters to Karoline letters of Norwegian missionaries

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

A stamped Norwegian missionary cover addressed to Fort Dauphin, Madagascar, was sent to the author for expertisation. Comparison with a letter sold previously, especially the paper and handwriting, shows it to be a forgery copied from an original bearing a genuine unused stamp. Look out for it in a sale catalogue or exhibition. It was offered for sale with two expert certificates by a German auction house.

FFE #3

Certificates at F.I.P. exhibitions

Class: Other

F. Burton Sellers R.D.P.

FIP rules for indicating the presence of an expert certificate for items in exhibitions. (e) in bold.

FFE #3

A simple new method to identify fakes - U.F.M.

Class: Other

Chang Min

There are ten million collectors in the People's Republic of China. Prices have risen, and significant numbers of forgeries have appeared. The use of ultra-violet fluorescence in identifying forgeries is discussed and illustrated.

FFE #3

Forged and faked 20th century philatelic material of Australia & related areas

Class: TR

Krzystof (Chris) Ceremuga

Relatively few Australian stamps have been faked or forged, but increasing numbers are appearing on the market. This is a problem since collectors and dealers in Australia seldom get items expertised. The £2.00 Kangaroo, OS official overprints, Perfins, specimens, BCOP overprints, varieties, errors and first day covers are considered in an extensive piece. The article concludes with the 1960 Papua New Guinea postal charges overprints, the 1995 bird of paradise surcharges, the 1914-15 GRI overprints, and the overprinted 1916 George V stamps of Nauru.

FFE #10

The "Forero" Reprints of 25 January 1923

Class: Aero

Dieter Bortfeldt

The article is about the definition and identification of the unauthorized REPRINTS or Forgeries of the SCADTA Provisional surcharges by C.FORERO of 25 January 1923. 1.) The GENUINE Provisional Surcharges were only used at the end of 1921 and ALL SCADTA stamps of the first issue were demonetized on 1 March 1922. 2.) The GENUINE surcharges were applied by a RUBBER handstamp from a toy printing set - the Forero Reprints / Forgeries by means of a metal cliché. 3.) The FORERO Reprints - Forgeries are only found cancelled by a red datestamp of 25 January 1923 of Barranquilla. 4.) In addition to normal surcharges he produced 11 varieties or ERRORS and a large quantity of Mint stamps - there are more FORERO stamps known than GENUINE stamps of 1921. 5.) These Reprints - Forgeries are of much lesser value than the Genuine stamps of 1921 and the catalogues should be adjusted to that reason.

FFE #10

The Forgeries of Poonch

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

The brief philatelic history of the Indian State of Poonch is detailed and the characteristics of the forgeries of the 1880-88 issues are examined, both as a whole issue, and then by each value in turn. Forged cancellations are also separately considered. The earlier forgeries were probably made during the late 1880s or 90s while there are more recent imitations which are also shown. The forgery of the 1876 issue is considerably later and its key features are listed. There appear to be no forgeries of the 1877 and 1879 stamps, as yet.

FFE #10

The Riel Essay

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

The history of the Riel rebellions of 1869 and 1885 in Manitoba is briefly told and the 'Riel Essays' known in red, green and black are considered, both in particular in respect to an individual stamp attached to a newspaper submitted to the author for an opinion, and in general to the issue as a whole. The stamp provided for expertisation is accepted as genuine while it is shown that the newspaper to which it was attached does not belong. The origin of the issue is considered with the balance of probability pointing to a philatelic source in the 1890s rather than to the 'Postmaster General' Bannatyne. The author asks readers for further information on this rare and contentious woodcut essay.

FFE #10

The Riddle of the "Forty Saints" in Northern Epirus/Southern Albania

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

The Forty Saints are Greek islands which came to philatelic prominence during the Balkan wars of 1912-13. The history of the official and bogus issues valid in the port of Aioi Saranta is retold with particular reference to the three cancellers used there at the time. All three cancellers appear genuinely to have been issued by the Greek authorities. Type II shows only genuine usage, but type I is used on the 'dubious' skull and crossbones issue and type III on the Argyrokastro issues. Despite a patina of respectability arising over time, the se usages remain dubious.

FFE #10

The Faked Swedish "Steinberg Covers"

Class: TR

Helena Obermülle-Wilén

More than 200 covers bearing classic Swedish material came to the market in Malmö in the early 1970s from a German named Steinberg. All are false. The majority are still on the market and the author has examined perhaps 120 of these covers. Cancellations and other postmarks are painted on, and are entirely false. Arrival marks are generally genuine, but altered. Using examples , the general characteristics of these covers are shown.

FFE #10

Some Brazilian Fakes and Forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

Nine Brazilian 'bulls eye' covers are illustrated and described. All are false. Fraudulent additions of stamps and postmarks are described.

FFE #10

The Investigation of the Grinnel "Missionaries"

Class: TR

Patrick Pearson

There has been more written since 2004 on the subject of the Grinnell Hawaiian missionary stamps than in the entire previous history of the controversy. The author sets out the methodology of the investigation into these stamps by the expert committee of the Royal Philatelic Society of London in reaching its conclusion that the stamps are forgeries.

FFE #10

Are Your Stamps Genuine?

Class: TR

Iwan Feddersen

A SENSATIONAL INVENTION CAN REVEAL FORGERIES. Computer vision is competing with the eye A new patented Danish invention based on Multispectral imaging (MSI) has been implemented in unique instrument called VideometerLab. The instrument uses up to 20 different wavelengths from 370 nm to 1050 nm. (1 billion nanometers = 1 meter). In the near infrared wavelengths 780 nm to 1050 nm the light will go through the printing on the stamp and penetrate the surface to reveal structures that are not visible to the human eye under normal circumstances. The acquired image is made out of pixels with a dimension of 50 micrometer (1 million micrometer = 1 meter). Thus subtle details may be seen.

FFE #10

Colonial Pre-philately of the Viceroyalty of Peru

Class: PH

Jesùs Sitjà Prats

When we studied the set up dates of the post offices in the Viceroyalty of Peru (1769-1824), we realized that some letters from "Cristobal Francisco Rodriguez, General Manager of Temporalidades of Lima" file, had impossible dates; this means the letter date was previous that the establishment of the post office. We followed studying this file and found that some letters from different places have the same calligraphy, this means, wrote for the same person. After that, we compared the inks of strikes of these letters (the ones of writing ink) with the ink of documents of these post offices in the same dates, kept in Seville Archive, they do not match. We also compare the size of the strikes with genuine ones, we found slightly differences. At the end we realized the Cristobal Francisco Rodriguez, General Manager of Temporalidades of Lima" file was manipulated.

FFE #10

The Inward Combination Covers to Japan and Their Authenticity

Class: PH

jun Ichi Matsumoto

The postal matters to and from foreign countries were treated by the Foreign Post Offices located at Yokohama, etc. The origin of these Post Offices was the Consular Packet Agenciy operated for the benefit of foreign residents in Japan. When the addressee was residing at Yokohama or at other treaty ports, they could receive mail directly from the Foreign Post Office. But, when the mail was addressed to someone residing far from Yokohama, the letter had to be transported by the Japanese domestic postal service. Thence occurs the necessity of mixed franking or combination covers bearing the postage stamps of two different postal bodies which were varied for each individual postal section. Today, we know the existence of Inward Combination Covers; Franco - Japanese, Anglo - Japanese and U.S. - Japanese. They are scarce in number, only 19 in total. This rarity attracts special attention of philatelists and the market price becomes inevitably expensive. This situation arouses doubtful sentiment against these incoming combination covers. But when scientifically and logically examined, the above-related 19 examples are judged all authentic.

FFE #10

Expertised, but still not right

Class: TR

Michael Jäschke-Lantelme

With the help of a well known stamp, Michel #1.I on a German Post Office in China cover, the article shows which methods can be employed today as proof of forgery. Not everyone will be pleased that these latest test methods can unmask many well known "rarities" as fakes or forgeries, but it shows how important the use of such methods is when carrying out tests using the latest technical advances.

FFE #10

Mystery of the Brazilian Parahyba Provisional

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen

The articles presents new results of the historical research about the circumstances of the origin of the Brazilian Parahyba Provisional issue from May 1930. The author, Wolfgang Maassen, makes clear that the famous Parahyba provisional does not owe its existence to any philatelic influence. And for the first time he presents a complete listing of all known provisionals.

FFE #10

On Repaired Numerical Oval Bar Obliterations

Class: TR

J. Miranda da Mota

The article shows the different types of numerical oval bar obliterations in Portugal, known as characteristics of the second postal reform, the time context of usage of these postal marks in the correspondence and some repaired numerical oval bar obliterations in comparison with unrepaired marks of the same post office. It's made evident the macroscopic characteristics of the authentic black ink used to apply obliterations and the black ink used to repair these obliterations. It's also pointed out the computer part, as additional diagnostic way, to determine the quantitative composition of colours, both in RGB and CMYK.

FFE #10

Principality of Montenegro, Overprint Forgeries

Class: TR

Dr. Jovan Velickovic

Montenegro celebrated two events with commemorative stamps, 400 years of printing in Montenegro (1893) , so called Прослава Штампарије, and its first Constitution, Устав, in 1905. For both events current stamps were overprinted locally in Cetinje. Primitive overprint settings , black and red overprints and basic stamps resulting from four printings, 1880, 1890, 1893 and 1894, produced an abundance of genuine varieties among which forged overprints can hardly be identified. Four forged overprints were established, from minute details of some letters. For the 1905 issue current stamps were taken , all uniform, however the overprinting plates of 100 contained five different types. Several types of detected forged overprints mostly appear on stamps with double and inverted overprints, one genuine the second fake, or on overprint "essays".

FFE #10

From the Robson Lowe Reference Collection

Class: TR

Carl Walske

A Nova Scotia cover and a Mexico wrapper originating from the Burrus collection is presented and discussed. Both were once believed genuine, but subsequently found to be manipulated. For the Mexican wrapper a rare stamp was consumed to produce a fake.

FFE #10

How to Discern Flown Covers from not Flown Covers

Class: TR

Igor Rodin

The article is concerned with five space flights where the Soviet operated jointly with another country: Hungary (1980), Vietnam (1980), Cuba (1980), France (1982), and India (1984). For each flight it is indicated which postmarks were only used on-board the vessel - so indicating a flown cover - and which postmarks were also used for ground mail. The article is extensively illustrated.

FFE #10

Postal Deception in Imperial Austria 1850-1863/64

Class: TR

Dr. ulrich Ferchenbauer

This extensively illustrated article discusses, by example, items without, or with no certain evidence of, fraudulent intent: (1) Underpaid letters, (2) Use of stamps in wrong currency, (3) Use of already invalid stamps, (4) Use of foreign stamps, (5) Mistaken use of newspaper stamps for letter postage, (6) Use of revenue stamps for postage, (7) Bisects and trisects. - Also items with obviously fraudulent intent: (1) Heavy to extremely heavy cut into items, (2) Use of previously used stamps, (3) Use of joined together or incomplete stamps, (4) Use of newspaper stamps as postage stamps, (5) Use of St. Andrews Cross as postage stamp, (6) Postal forgeries.

FFE #10

Comments on the Rise and Fall of a Printed Piece of Paper

Class: TR

Heinz ErwinJungjohann

The article describes the unfortunate case of certain exhibition covers from the 1934 philatelic exhibition in Katowice. The covers had printed on them, in various colours, natural sized illustrations of contemporary Polish stamps. Subsequently cut-outs from such covers have surfaced as essays, proofs, etc. - at times even supplied with a certificate from a misled expert!

FFE #10

A Beautiful Letter from Riga, but...

Class: TR

Harry von Hoffmann

The article describes a WW2 'Feldpost'-letter, which was just too nice to be genuine. E.g. it was not possible for civilians to post mail from a field post office - plus six other important details.

FFE #10

Opinions on Tolerable Restorarion. Views on the Prof. John West Paper

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

The article discusses a possible conflict between collector's aesthetics and exhibition rules on one hand and the needs of philatelic science and postal history documentation on the other. By authoritative and convincing examples from Schleswig-Holstein'ian philately concern is expressed that misguided aesthetics should not lead to exclusion, devaluation and eventually the likely destruction of important philatelic objects, - e.g. entires where the fine aesthetics of the stamps are contrasted by a lamentable condition of the covers.

FFE #10

Producer Of Forgeries Of The Early Japanese Postage Stamps

Class: TR

Mamoru Sawa

This article concerns forgeries of early Japanese stamps from the Dragon, Cherry Blossom and Koban issues. The article presents a thorough examination of two of the top producers of forgeries, Wada Kotaro, top maker of forgeries in the Meiji Era, and Maeda Kihei, founder of the Kamigata-ya shop. The world renown Wada Kotaro produced, marketed and distributed forgeries of early Japanese postage stamps, as did the Kamigata-ya shop. Among other things, the Kamigata-ya dealt in forgeries of the Koban 45 sen stamps, and some Cherry Blossom stamps.

FFE #11

Balancing Probabilities

Class: TR

Christopher King

A previously unlisted postmark from Aarhus in Denmark is shown on a folded letter from the Three Years War of 1848-1851. In the absence of other evidence, the author considers how this might be authenticated by context, history, other material from the same war, the writer and the recipient.

FFE #11

Oneglia's fac-similés for the province of Canada

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Erasmo Oneglia, a Torino printer, produced many engraved forgeries between 1897 and 1907. Those for the Province of Canada, being Scott numbers 1-20 are considered in detail with a technical description and large colour illustrations. Paper, printing technique, cancellations and rarity are considered, with current sale prices for each example. A table lists each facsimile with design, colour, paper, rarity and original cost in 1907, together with notes on the genuine stamps.

FFE #11

Madame Joseph and her forged cancellations

Class: TR

Brian Cartwright

The museum of the Royal Philatelic Society London includes a collection of postmarking implements acquired in 1993. 438 of these are postmarking devices in wood, copper, zinc, lead and rubber, together with other related materials dated from 1852 to 1967. The majority are from the 1885 to 1935. The history of these implements is recounted, including their use by Madame Joseph and other dealers to postmark stamps. Sheets bearing 120 postmarks (illustrated), including examples of those held by the RPSL, have been discovered in the Stanley Gibbons Reference collection, and these are considered together. Identification of the marks, their use on stamps with errors and varieties, substituted and suppressed dates are covered. The author advises care in purchasing stamps which are catalogued more highly used than mint.

FFE #11

Belgium, Forgeries of the Five Francs Leopold II 1878

Class: TR

James Van der Linden

The five francs Leopold II is the most forged Belgian stamp with 17 different forgeries listed. Usage of the genuine stamp is described, as are the 17 key points in distinguishing it, which are illustrated. The five most dangerous forgeries are illustrated and described in detail.

FFE #11

Holy Land and Israel Fakes and Forgeries - Examples from 1860-1948

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

The complex postal history of the Holy Land is sketched out and examples of forgeries are illustrated and described. These include forged postmarks and covers with examples from the Austrian Post, the French Post Jaffa 3768 and 5089 postmarks, the Turkish Post boxed Acre postmark, British Palestine 1918 overprint, Egyptian Expeditionary Force Jerusalem postmark, the Dead Sea postmark of 1941, the OVER LAND MAIL Haifa-Baghdad cachet, a 1948 transition period Ma'abarot registered cover, the 1948 1st coins issue including essays, first day cover and imperforate varieties, the 1948 provisional postage dues, the 1948 Israel first festivals and the use of the tête-bêche stamps on first day cover.

FFE #11

Great Britain Definitive Forgeries 1993-2004

Class: TR

Gavin Fryer

Forgeries of the Machin definitive 24p chestnut (10 September 1991), the 1989 second class blue in booklet panes, and 1997 gold first class adhesives are considered and illustrated. It is believed that first and second class self adhesive stamps are being produced in China in large quantities.

FFE #11

The Rare Rotary Press 2¢ Black Harding Stamp with Gauge 11 Perforations

Class: TR

Ken Lawrence

A unique strip of three rotary press 2 cents black Warren G Harding memorial stamps, perforation 11, was sold by Matthew Bennett Auctioneers in the United States for US$150,000 plus commission on 20 October 2007 after a protracted expertisation. The article gives an historical background to the stamp and its production, followed by a very detailed technical account of the lengthy expert examination. Expert opinion was divided and the owner finally identified the stamps as originating on the rotary press by matching plate flaws from the original plate proofs at the National Postal Museum. The resulting certificate from Philatelic Foundation noted that the stamps had been lightly cleaned. The new owner and auction house dispute this, and further expert opinion is to be sought.

FFE #11

From the Robson Lowe Reference Collection

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Two covers are illustrated, one from France with 20 centimes black Ceres from 6 January 1849, the other a 1847-48 large eagle 5 centimes from Geneva. Both have certificates from experts who were well thought of in their day, both are forgeries. The author urges humility on expertisers.

FFE #11

An Oneglia or Sperati New Zealand Forgery?

Class: TR

Robin Gwynne

The writer notes that there are few dangerous forgeries of New Zealand stamps where manipulation is a greater threat. The article considers a 1878 two shillings first side face design produced photographically from a genuine stamp on genuine NZ and star watermarked paper originating probably from a bleached out two penny stamp. It has a forged cancellation with the letters TU in a vertical barred oval. The question is, who produced it? Probably not Sperati, but perhaps Oneglia, although it is not listed in the 'Catalogue des Imitations'. Can anyone help?

FFE #11

Some Brazilian Fakes and Forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

Four Brazilian covers and a number of individual stamps are illustrated, considered and described as fakes or forgeries. These include: a vertical strip of three 280 réis in red on a cover from Bahia to Marseilles - dated 12 July 1866, a folded letter from Rio de Janeiro to Bordeaux with a horizontal pair of 60 réis in black - arriving 4 November 1862, a folded letter from Rio de Janeiro to Bordeaux with a vertical strip of three 60 réis in black - arriving 18 January 1863, and a cover from Pernambuco to Le Havre with a 260 réis D. Pedro II. All were originally unstamped and the stamps have been added later. The reasons for these conclusions are explained. The individual stamps bear postmarks from IGUASSÚ, CACHOEIRA, C.G. da PARAHYBA DO NORTE 21 1 1847, SAO SEBASTIÃO DA PARAHYBA, CORREIO GERAL DA CORTE - 8 18EM62 11 - BRAZIL, RIO CLARO, and MAILED AT SEA - S.S. COLOMBIA - COLOMBIAN LINE. None of these stamps was ever on a cover, all are genuine and all of the postmarks are frauds.

FFE #11

A reappraisal of the status and usage on the surcharged Queen Victorian Postal Stationery - part one - The 1879 Provisional Postcards of Ceylon

Class: TR

Alan Huggins and Kurt E. Kimmel

The background and philatelic history of these 8 cents and 12 cents surcharges in 1879 on postal stationery cards is considered, beginning in 1881 when they were first reported. The authors have reviewed the early literature from 1881-1897 and consider all examples recorded to date, with a inventory of HG (Higgins and Gage) 2, 8c/2c with "Naples/Marseilles/or/Southampton" and HG3 12c/2c with "Via Brindisi". Eleven used cards are illustrated and described as are four unused cards. These are cards with "Ceylan" incorporated in the surcharge. The existence of cards as early as 1892 with "CEYLAN" or "CEYLON" in the overprint is also considered with five such cards illustrated together with three others with differing overprints. Their history in the literature is discussed and the description of these variously as varieties, errors and essays is considered. In commenting on these cards it is difficult to come to a definitive conclusion since the rationale for their production is unclear and the attribution of essay status needs to be treated with great caution.

FFE #11

Philatelic Conservation - Restoration

Class: TR

David R Beech

The article continues Carl-Aage Møller's piece on acceptable conservation and restoration within philately. He considers the differences between conservation, restoration and improvement emphasising that the prime motivation is what is good for the item in question with all other considerations being secondary. It is suggested that a certificate in the future might include an opinion as to genuineness, a record of provenance, a record of treatments used in conservation, photographs, and records of scientific analysis.

FFE #11

Qatar - The Political Officer's Datestamp

Class: TR

Greg Todd

The usage and forgery of the rare date stamp "OFFICE OF THE POLITICAL OFFICER - QATAR" is chronicled. Two cancelled by favour items are illustrated, two genuine covers and one forgery are shown, with the latter being explained.

FFE #11

The 'Jammu Seal Provisional', An Emergency Issue or a Postal Forgery

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

The use of the provisional Jammu hand struck seal in red cancelled with an identical seal in black is considered by some experts and catalogues as genuine, while others have doubts. Fourteen copies are known on 13 covers and these are listed in a table, together with the three items known on piece. The philatelic history of this issue is set out beginning with David Masson in 1900, Sefi and Mortimer in their handbook of 1937, Dawson and Smythe of the same year, and others more recently. Doubts were raised in 1981, and more technically in 1983. A mixed franking is illustrated and explained, and a possible provisional described. In conclusion the author balances the argument between a postal fraud and genuine usage, leaning towards a theoretical support for the former.

FFE #11

The Stamps of the Special Detachment of the Belorussian National Republic

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Unlisted by Michel, the background to these stamps is reviewed including their printing by the Latvian State Printing offices in a million copies of each except for the 10 Kopek value which numbered 750,000. The origin, printing, postcards, the only day of usage, and forgeries for the packet trade are considered together with unauthorised postmarks. The author wonders why they were used only for a single day.

FFE #11

Railway Post Gulbene - Valka 1924?

Class: TR

Harry v. Hofmann

A superficially attractive, but clearly faked postcard is shown from Latvia. The postmark on the stamp is not aligned with that on the card, it is over franked, and two postmarks are added together to make a non-existent route.

FFE #11

The Swedish Faked Landstorm Covers

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

The article reports and illustrates forgeries made by Gunnar Fellenius who was convicted of forgery in 1987 and who had been producing forgeries since the late 1970s. After the trial he continued to make forgeries until his death in 2001. From the beginning of 1980 he used the Landstorm stamps of 1916 and 1918 added to a correspondence between Thyra Gradin and her fiancée Gösta Drakenberg. He also bought the typewriter of Sven Åkerstedt, a well known philatelist and expert, who died in 1977, and used this to make long winded expert certificates. Other covers are signed by Strandell, the most famous philatelist in Sweden who died in 1963. Covers and stamps are illustrated and explained.

FFE #11

Some New Aspects of Studies on "Degron-Kun Covers" or Franco-Japanese Mixed Franked Covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Following on from an earlier article in FFE8, the author reviews the evidence for the "special" nature of the postal arrangements between Japan and the wider world through the French postmaster M. Degron, at the French Post Office in Yokohama. The author concludes that this was a simple process of ordinary mail with Japanese postage prepaying the carriage to Yokohama and French postage prepaying the onward conveyance. The writer believes that these "Mr Degron Covers" are not the subject of official sanction for military personnel only but that the service was available to the general public. A domestic letter to Sweden is cited as an example demonstrating this. This system operated for five years from 1873-1878, 83 covers are known, six "Degron-Kun" handstamps are recorded which are illustrated together with statistical tables and covers.

FFE #11

Papal States - Faked and Problematic Postal-History Covers

Class: TR

Thomas Mathà

In considering covers from the Papal States knowledge of methods of noting rates on covers, and the postal conventions, routes and rates is essential. Forgers were often clumsy and simply added stamps to covers which an understanding of the postal history unmasks. Nineteen forged covers are illustrated and explained in detail.

FFE #11

A Sophisticated Forgery

Class: TR

Heinz Erwin Jungjohann

Forged cancellations on material from the early liberation period in Poland are compromised. Collectors should have a detailed knowledge of the state of individual cancellers over time especially LUBLIN 1 r.

FFE #11

Austria: Allied Censorship 1945-1953 - Misuse of a Soviet Censor Stamp 1946

Class: TR

Helmut Seebald

Offered items of post war mail censored in Wiener Neustadt with an oval handstamp, the author noted that the items were earlier than they ought to be. The seller, a former post office worker had found the handstamp in the 1960s, and had taken it home. The handstamp is now in the possession of the author. Examples of the genuine mark are shown as is its use 35 years later, and a recent imprint from 2007. Genuine and misused items are illustrated. The article further considers Allied and Soviet censorship in Vienna especially the use of an oval handstamp OESTERREICHISCHE ZENSURSTELL W.N. and the same with W.N. removed. It concludes with six points of advice on how to decide whether a censored item is genuine or a fake.

FFE #11

Romania: 150 Year Anniversary of the Bulls Heads of Moldavia

Class: TR

Fritz Heimbüchler

The history of the Bulls Heads is told and the number of stamps known of each of the values is recorded. A forgery of the 27 Parale is demonstrated, the 1891 reprints in original colours is discussed as is the need for up to date certificates. The article follows on from an earlier piece in FFE3. The Importance of Historical Geography in the Expertisation of Postal History Charles J. G. Verge FRPSC, FRPSL In the author's opinion historical, economic, political and geographical context are import factors in philatelic expertising. Two covers from Nova Scotia with bisected two cent stamps are considered, both not properly tied to the cover and one lacking a backstamp. Without researching the history of the post offices and their date of operation, together with the use of contemporary maps, allows the destinations to be identified. Consideration is also given to the use and changing shape of cork cancellers. Both covers have been given certificates of authenticity by the Greene Foundation.

FFE #11

Three Ways

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

The writer divides expertising into three periods; the nineteenth century for the most part graphic design was sufficient to distinguish forged from genuine; the early part of the twentieth century when distinguishing between printing methods became essential; and between the wars when printing became more sophisticated with lithographic reproductions by Sperati and Paul. Nowadays with specialist auction catalogues in colour, with specialised studies of rates and issues, more material than ever is available to the forger, faker and repairer. While it is still necessary to study older printing techniques for printing classic stamps, it is necessary also to be familiar with the modern techniques used to forge them.

FFE #11

The Importance of Historical Geography in the Expertisation of Postal History

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

In the author's opinion historical, economic, political and geographical context are import factors in philatelic expertising. Two covers from Nova Scotia with bisected two cent stamps are considered, both not properly tied to the cover and one lacking a backstamp. Without researching the history of the post offices and their date of operation, together with the use of contemporary maps, allows the destinations to be identified. Consideration is also given to the use and changing shape of cork cancellers. Both covers have been given certificates of authenticity by the Greene Foundation.

FFE #11

The Perkins-Bacon "Proofs" of the 1906 Olympic Issue of Greece: A Clarification

Class: TR

Michalis E. Tsironis

The question of the timing of the delivery of the 1906 proofs is addressed, especially if they predated or post-dated the delivery of the actual stamps. Are these proofs or reprints? See also FFE9.

FFE #11

Colombia: The "AR" Provisionals of 1902-03

Class: TR

Dieter Bortfeldt and Alan D. Anyon

Colombian stamps overprinted AR are offered on the Internet with high prices. The authors give the historical background to these stamps which are listed in detail in the Temprano catalogue and mentioned in Scott and Yvert. Stamps used on documents are scarce, and the writers conclude that only types used on documents serve to identify genuine AR stamps. Four such are illustrated. Using overlays derived from copies on forms it is possible to determine that only one type is genuine, and this is also known forged. Genuine, forged and bogus items are illustrated. All AR SCADTA and telegraph stamps are bogus. All mint stamps must be considered doubtful.

FFE #11

An Incoming Small Dragon Postcard: A Chinese Forgery

Class: TR

Michael Ho

The article concerns a French postcard sent to Naumburg in Germany, and redirected to Shanghai, China. On receipt in Shanghai a three Candarins stamp was affixed, cancelled with a customs canceller, marked "T" and handstamped "To Pay" in red. With reference to genuine material the customs cancellation is shown to be forged, and the stamp deliberately added.

Fig 2

FFE #12

Guard against forged covers

Class: TR

Li Shuguang

Philatelists should learn how forgers try to trick them, based on stamps from The People's Republic of China, the author describes how forgers fabricate, graft, alter and plagiarise to trap collectors. Knowledge of the historical and philatelic record can detect many forgeries of military covers, but today's forgers are getting cleverer, and philatelists need to study literature on forgeries in order to stay ahead. Beware of covers made by using illustrations from magazines and catalogues used to synthesize forged items.

Fig 2

FFE #12

From the Robson Lowe reference collection

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Adrian Albert Jürgens was a South African collector who late in life improved many covers with forged cancellations and bisected postage stamps. The article illustrates three such covers.

Fig 20 Unflown V12 / V13 card

FFE #12

Friedrich Schmiedl Rocket mail

Class: TR

Walter Hopferwieser

The author describes rocket mail sent by Friedrich Schmiedel illustrating 24 items initiated by him. The text describes how forgeries may be distinguished from genuine items.

Fig 1

FFE #12

Forged Norwegian Covers

Class: TR

Hans J. Enger

Two previously unknown forgeries of Norwegian covers from the 1860s are illustrated, one to France with incorrect postage and stamps which do not belong, and the other with redrawn cancels.

Fig 21

FFE #12

Serbia, 1869/1880, The Prince Milan issue, Fakes and Forgeries

Class: TR

Dr. Jovan Velickovic

Forged stamps from this issue are known for all values. The article describes forged perforations, complete forgeries, fake and fantasy cancellations and faked covers, and usages on newspaper are illustrated and described.

Fig 3

FFE #12

A new forgery of the Swedish printing error 20/TRETIO

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller-Wilén

Fournier forged stamps showing the 20/tretio error of 19 December 1879 exist. In 2008 a new forgery appeared which is more dangerous and is illustrated here.

Fig 16A

FFE #12

Forged and bogus postal markings of Mongolia

Class: TR

Wolfgang Hellrigl

Forgeries for stamps and covers from Mongolia before 1939 are omnipresent. There are forged cancellations and bogus markings. The article presents an overview of these both illustrated and described in detail.

Fig 4

FFE #12

Iceland 5 Aurar oval issue: black prints - not a fake but new discovery

Class: TR

Orla Nielsen & Ebbe Eldrup

The five aurar black prints of Iceland are illustrated and discussed. The authors suggest that the Facit catalogue adds to the description of the Berne reprints from 1904 that black prints exist of the five aurar on thick and thin paper without watermark. The authors conclude that black prints without the split EAST frame are proofs for the Berne reprints probably produced during the reprinting in 1904.

Fig 2A

FFE #12

The expert committee of the RPS and the changing face of forgeries

Class: TR

Patrick Pearson

Patrick Pearson, Chairman of the Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society London, describes the work and working practices of the Committee together with its forensic equipment.

Fig 9

FFE #12

The bogus surcharges of the island of Castellorizo

Class: TR

Andrew Cronin

Turkish stamps surcharged during the period March-September 1913 are reviewed and covers, stamps and pieces are illustrated. The conclusion sums up the available data by suggesting that the catalogues which ignore these surcharges are thoroughly justified.

Fig 2

FFE #12

"Degron-kun covers" or Franco-Japanese mixed franked covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Information provided on the Degron-kun covers in FFE 11 is updated in this article together with illustrations of the seven hand stamps, three covers and an update of previous statistics covering 91 known items, broken down into types, colours, years and senders.

Fig 5

FFE #12

Implications of impossible

Class: TR

Morten J. Lintrup

The author examines Belgium's 1915 Red Cross semi-postals printed by Waterlow Bros. and Leighton Ltd., often referred to as the Albert I large medallion series. The issue is described and 'impossible' items discussed together with recommendations for additions to the COB/OCB official catalogue listing of Belgium's World War I Red Cross issues.

Fig 9

FFE #12

Expertizing "Muraokuri" sheet of Japan

Class: TR

Kazuyuki Inoue

The Muraokuri courier system was introduced on Shiakoko Island in 1584. Between 1 June 1872 and 15 November 1874 local stamps were issued by the Kochi prefectural government, also called Muraokuri. In 1917 an article appeared with photographs of three Muraokuri stamps. In 1941 a photograph in red showing 18 stamps appeared in "The Yubin Kitte". The article refers to the appearance of the original of this sheet in 2003 and its subsequent expertising. This sheet is identical with that published in 1941 and will aid the plating of these stamps in future.

FFE #12

Can Plastic Films Damage My Stamps?

Class: TR

Ib Krarup, comments by John West

The author, formerly production manager for a plastics company, reviews the use of PVC hard film pockets for long-term storage of stamps. The chemical attributes are discussed, and advises against all uses of PVC for long-term storage of stamps. Polypropylene, polyethylene, polyester, polystyrene, glassine and cellophane are discussed with reference to an article in Philatelie, a German magazine, as is an article by Professor John West.

Fig 6

FFE #12

Hollands track-boat markings a conundrum solved

Class: TR

Kees Adema

The hand stamps for the carriage of mail from Amsterdam to The Hague and Rotterdam for the postilion and track boat service are illustrated and described. A definite forgery of the 2S Schuyt marking is described and the two types of this mark are discussed. Using x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy (XRF) is explained in examining letters from 1693 and 1695 with the conclusion that the marks and paper were genuine. The 3S hand stamps applied only in Amsterdam are illustrated. Further investigation of the ink using Raman spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that the previous results were wrong since the ink contained an artificial blackening agent rather than 17th century pigments.

Fig 2c

FFE #12

Colombia - 3rd issue of 1861 notes on forgeries

Class: TR

Dieter Bortfeldt

Forgeries of the third issue of Columbia of 1861 are reviewed. Forgeries by Sperati, Fournier, Senf and Schroeder are considered and illustrated together with their characteristic features.

FFE #12

An guideline for the expert group at work af FIP world stamp exhibitians

Class: TR

Tay Peng Hian & Lim Sa Bee

An operational guideline for the use by expert groups at FIP and continental exhibitions is described together with advice on procedures, forms and other paperwork together with a four-day timetable for the process.

September 17

FFE #12

Covers from South Bulgaria - a rare variety of Balkan postal history

Class: TR

Thomas Hitzler

A brief history of the south Bulgarian ′Lions′ overprints together with illustrations of faked and genuine covers is given. Genuine covers and postcards correctly used, cancellations by favour on genuine overprints and genuine cancellations by favour on faked Lions overprints are explained and illustrated together with faked cancellation on both genuine and faked Lions overprints. Finally, the manipulation of a genuine cover is shown. The postal history is described up until the end of September 1885.

Fig 3

FFE #12

A lucky reunion - and how patience pays off

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

A cover bearing a pair of Holstein No. 1 sent to Christiansfeld in Schleswig and lacking a stamp is shown. The discovery of the missing stamp and its positioning on the only cover known sent to the Duchy of Schleswig is described. A remarkable reunion of a very rare cover expertised by Carl Aage Møller.

Fig 12

FFE #12

The Misuse of the Datestamp Bauschowitz a.d. Eger/Bohusovice n.OHRI, Ub: g

Class: TR

Hans-Hermann Paetow

Forged examples resulting from the misuse of the date stamp Bauschowitz a.d. Eger/Bohusovice n.Ohri, Ub: g are reviewed and illustrated together with the eleven registered strikes. The letter 'g' cancellor was in private hands between April-May 1945 and possibly 1947 resulting in a very large number of forged items.

Fig 5

FFE #12

Fake 1932 Paraguayan Chaco war covers

Class: TR

Roberto C. Eaton K.

Faked covers from the Paraguayan-Chaco War from 1932 are illustrated and described and any use of postmarks from the Paraguayan Posta Militair prior to 1933 is a fake.

FFE #12

Not only holes

Class: TR

Wista

The use of perforation by Wista involving differently shaped security holes in conjunction with standard perforations is described.

Fig 5

FFE #12

A reappraisal of the status and usage on the surcharged queen Victorian postal stationery of Ceylon - Part Two - The 1885 local 10 cent surcharges

Class: TR

Alan Huggins & Kurt E. Kimmel

Alan Huggins and Kurt Kimmel continue the reappraisal of surcharged Queen Victoria postal stationery of Ceylon began in FFE 11. Bogus and philatelic items are illustrated and described together with the history of the known items. A useful bibliography supplements the piece.

Fig 1

FFE #12

Forged Swedish stamps 2004-2008

Class: TR

Ingvar Larsson

A large-scale fraud of Swedish post stamps involving ten issues between 2004 and 2008 are described and illustrated. The genuine and false stamps are compared, and the size and distribution of the fraud are estimated.

FFE #13

A forged cancel attributed to Spiro

Class: TR

Hans J. A. Vinkenborg

A reconstruction of a fantasy canceller is presented, of which only fractions are to be found on individual stamps - but on such a variety of different stamps that it is clearly the work of a forger. Without conclusive evidence, it is argued that Spiro is the most likely culprit.

FFE #13

Forged Faroe Islands #1 on 1919 postcard to Denmark

Class: TR

Geoffrey Noer

Even a certificate from a recognised expert is not a 100% guarantee. Experts do have bad days, and forgers excel at times. But the truth may still prevail, as was the case with an unusual #1 postcard with VESTMANHAVN cancellation.

FFE #13

Great Britain - Postal stationery fakes

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

An alert to the fact that postal stationery material is available and "authentic" - also to forgers who can use it as a foundation upon which to construct more unusual and seemingly attractive items by adding more stamps and cancellations. With two examples.

FFE #13

The last letter dispatched from the French post office of Yokohama, and its hapless trips

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

A thorough and imaginative trace of what must - by deduction - be the last of a series of letters with French postage stamps mailed from Japan. With 9 stations on its 1880 way from Japan to France - and back to the unhappy sender in Japan!

FFE #13

The engraved forgeries of Sicily

Class: TR

Carl Walske

Classic Sicilian stamps - Bomba heads - are as popular with forgers as with collectors. Seven different types of engraved forgeries are illustrated and discussed.

FFE #13

Forgeries in Maximaphily

Class: TR

Jos Wolff

By four examples - from Latvia, Belgium, Luxembourg and Italy - it is demonstrated that forgeries are also an issue within maximaphilately, some are more obvious than others and can be identified with just the right combination of scepticism and awareness.

FFE #13

The Prosser fantasies

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

The story of the Prosser fantasies within Canadian philately is told. The quality and nature of these works of art make them all the more dangerous to collectors, since they are really made by a qualified artist just to develop his professional skills, not to defraud collectors!

FFE #13

Some Brazilian fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Paulo Comelli

With much detail and many elaborate arguments, thirteen examples are presented of fakes and forgeries within classic Brazilian philately - even some with misguided certificates.

FFE #13

The Great Britain 1883 high values on blued paper - A story of forgery and deceit

Class: TR

Trevor I. Harris

Just what the title says! - With special emphasis on forgeries, their background and their appearance.

FFE #13

Issues of the independence of Portugal 1926-1928

Class: TR

Pedro Vaz Pereira

The interesting story behind these early Portuguese commemoratives and their speculative character is laid out. A warning is signalled for forged "proofs", which appeared in the market 1955, then disappeared but resurfaced in 1989.

FFE #13

About the Homonnay cancellations shown in FEPAPOST 94

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

A presentation of pre-philatelic Hungarian HOMONNAY cancellations - and their fakes.

FFE #13

Forgeries of Norwegian first day covers - The "1975-forgeries"

Class: TR

Peer-Christian Ånensen

An interesting story and a tabular listing of forgeries found of modern material not often attracting the attention of forgers. But Norway is different, and the details are found here, including suspicious if not totally conclusive evidence such as how stamps are positioned and cancellations are placed on FDCs.

FFE #13

A somewhat early, or very late, Kurland letter

Class: TR

Harry v. Hofmann

A nice-looking eBay offering of a rare WW2 cover is figuratively torn to pieces by a subject matter expert.

FFE #13

The Perkins Bacon 3 pence on fourpence stamp

Class: TR

Anthony D. Presgrave

The article, though dealing with all of the rare 3 Pence on Four Pence stamp (from South Australia), is primarily aimed at settling once and for all the status of the O. S. overprints. It will not be popular with collectors who possess examples of these O. S. stamps...

FFE #13

Designs, Proofs, Essays

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

A thorough and well argued piece about the pitfalls of this increasingly popular subject - with many examples from within French philately.

FFE #13

The faker who shot himself in the foot

Class: TR

Robin Gwynn

An entertaining exposition of a faker who manipulated a VICTORIA LAND overprint to simulate a variety - and in doing so he overlooked and ruined a rare plate flaw in the original stamp, which was twice as rare as the would-be overprint error!

FFE #13

Cancellation manipulations

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

Cancellation manipulations found on modern Scandinavian stamps - with many examples.

FFE #13

Elementary analysis of the Richardson inks

Class: TR

Robert P. Odenweller

An example of X-ray fluorescence assisted expert work on the subject of New Zealand Chalon Heads. The work is experimental and results are not totally conclusive.

FFE #13

Great Britain postal stationery - A W. H. Smith & Son advertising collar mystery

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

The true mystery of an exotic British stationery cut (two examples seen), which must be a reproduction, yet without any possible significant financial gain attached.

FFE #13

Philippines: The emission 5 & 10 cuartos 1858-1862

Class: TR

Eduardo Escalada-Goicoechea

NB! Correction for the article: The figure text for figure 6 says it is a forgery. THIS IS NOT CORRECT - it is genuine. The figure with the wrong figure text is shown here.

The article content is just as the title says. It is a story well told and with first rate illustrations.

FFE #13

Great Britain medicine tax - Forgeries of the engraved issues

Class: TR

Chris Harman

An unusual story about revenue seals and contemporary falsification of them - primarily executed outside the British realm to signal British origin and official approval of products without risking the heavy penalty imposed within Britain for such falsification.

FFE #13

Misuse of genuine cancels - Examples from previous Yugoslavia

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

(I) A forged cover with the "Listopad" stamp, only valid 29 November 1918, is presented.
(II) The story of forged 1984 Sarajevo Winter Olympics FDCs, and similar faked modern items, is given.
(III) Serbian telegram forms 1941-44 franked with provisionals are analyzed and shown to be faked.

FFE #13

Ecuador: The Seebeck 1894 reprinted card

Class: TR

Bernie Beston

Type B of the stationery card in question - widely regarded as a fabrication to defraud collectors - is shown to exist genuinely used and is thus rehabilitated!

FFE #13

Most seductive double frankings

Class: TR

Michèle Chauvet

By numerous examples - all concerning France and a second country - it is shown that such attractive objects as covers with stamps from two countries are particularly prone to be the "artistic" work of scrupulous forgers, and may even come with certificates from misled "experts".

FFE #13

The Lowden forgery - The full story told for the first time

Class: TR

Trevor I. Harris

The entertaining crime story behind a particular forgery, of which only the few copies that played an active part in the ensuing court case are still in existence today.

FFE #13

The forgeries of general Balbos 1933 flight from Newfoundland

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Full explanation and illustrations pertaining to all four types of this rare provisional and their most prevalent falsifications.

FFE #13

The "Un Pranc" error

Class: TR

Raymond Goebel

A detailed explanation and some wonderful illustrations of this most attractive and rare overprint error from Luxembourg, of which - perhaps surprisingly - less than a dozen are estimated to exist today.

FFE #13

Modern stamp forgeries of Great Britain

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

Detailed information on false Machin stamps, denominations 24p, 2nd, and 1st.

FFE #13

Mixed frankings Belgium & France

Class: TR

Jan Huys

A warning about early covers from France to Belgium with stamps from both countries, of which at least one does not belong on the cover. At least three are supposed to exist, and at least one has been offered for sale at several occasions in recent years.

FFE #13

The first "forgers": Philip Spiro, Hamburg

Class: TR

Wolfgang Maassen

The interesting story of one of the notorious classic wholesale reproducers of early stamps, and a description of the philatelic dilemmas associated with early falsification of stamps.

FFE #13

A great Heligoland cover is lost for the future

Class: TR

Lars Peter Svendsen

A great collection was dissolved and a well-known item long regarded by all as a gem stone of Heligoland philately proved to be something else.

FFE #13

Fight against fakes and forgeries on internet sales

Class: TR

Andrew M. T. Cheung

A story from Hong Kong about how dispersion of fakes and forgeries through internet sales are combated there. With many concrete examples, both new and old, and richly illustrated.

FFE #13

New aspects of identifying the Slovenian 15 and 20 kronen forgeries

Class: TR

Per Friis Mortensen

Story of an attempt to use 1200 dpi scanning and subsequent RGB colour separation to identify genuine and forged examples of two Slovenian stamps. Unfortunately, in this case the method did not prove to be a feasible means of doing so.

Class: TR

FFE #14

A new forger?

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

New very dangerous French forgeries of first issues with a very sharp warning for possible future discoveries of classis issues from other countries from the same forger. A very thorough investigation and report.

FFE #14

A newly appeared "Degron- Kun" cover of type 3

Class: PH

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

Another piece in the always ongoing puzzle of our expert´s study of these very rare Franco-Japanese mixed covers.

FFE #14

Eagles, first postage stamps of the French colonial empire

Class: TR

Michèle Chauvet

An excellent description of the first general issue for the French colonies. Besides explaining differences between genuine and forged stamps our expert also shows a lot of faked postmarks on genuine as well as on forged stamps.

FFE #14

Great Britain postal reform of 1870 - 71

Class: PH

Gavin Fryer

A very detailed report about the postal reform, facilitating especially more heavy mail, in combination with the issue of a ½ d. stamp.

FFE #14

A most spectacular reunion

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

Three unique Danish philatelic crown jewels are proven to have belonged together. Our expert tells the history of them and the story about how they were put together to become one of the greatest rarities in Danish philately.

FFE #14

The forgeries of the High Values of the Papal States' first issue

Class: TR

Thomas Mathà

An advanced study of the forgeries of these two attractive stamps, which were all made to defraud collectors. No postal forgeries exist.

FFE #14

A wonderful fantasy/forgery

Class: PST

Stephen D. Schumann

An exciting trip around the world for this postcard from the Netherlands was just a dream.

FFE #14

Notes on forgeries of the SCADTA provisional issues of 1921 - 1923

Class: Aero

Dieter Bortfeldt & Santiago Cruz A.

Showing an array of forgeries of this popular issue. Forged stamps as well as forged surcharge and /or cancellations on genuine as well as forged stamps.

FFE #14

Holy land fakes and forgeries - new examples 1896 - 1938

Class: PH

Yacov Tsachor & Zvi Aloni

A selection faked and manipulated covers and postal stationery, mostly with faked postmarks, but also one with faked perfins.

FFE #14

The three values of Bull's Eyes on a cover (Meyer's cover)

Class: PH

Paulo Comelli

Our expert is tracing this fantastic cover back in time and share with us a lot of interesting anecdotes and stories about historical sales as well as about the owners. Also about the famous Swedish-American collector colonel Lagerlöf who through his donations made the Swedish Postal Museum exceptional. – It is also explained that in spite of rumors, he did not seem to have owned this remarkable cover.

FFE #14

Serbia, the 1866/69 Prince Michael issues, forgeries and fakes

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

A very detailed study of the first issue of Serbia including the newspaper stamps. Identifying genuine stamps and describing various fakes including cancellations and bisects.

FFE #14

New Canadian postal Counterfeits

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

This article is a follow up on the articles published in FFE number 8 and 9.These articles included a summary of all Canadian postal forgeries known to date. We will see that year 2010 has been a big year in Canada for postal forgeries with a total of eleven new forgeries!

FFE #14

3 skilling yellow of Sweden

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

Another examination of this very famous stamp. Especially interesting as it starts from scratch and our expert works his way through all possibilities and hypothesis. Therefore also very interesting as a study of basic as well as advanced philatelic expert work.

FFE #14

Colorimetric analysis of an enhanced cancel on a Mauritius1d stamp

Class: TR

Thomas Lera

The Smithsonian National Postal Museum (NPM) recently obtained a VSC6000 (video spectral comparator) for philatelic research. This article shows how it can be used to examine a postmark.

FFE #14

The expert opinion on 'ONE'- surcharge definitive stamps of Daehan Empire

Class: TR

Yoon-Hong Kahn

A very advanced report by the Korean Philatelic Society´s Expert Committee about the examination of 6 items with the “one”-surcharge. It includes a detailed inventory of the manufacturing and delivery/sale of these stamps.

FFE #14

Canada's Lunar new year of the Pig Fakes

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Believe it or not - also less than 5 year old stamps are faked to defraud collectors. Interesting story about faked modern varieties from Canada 2007 and earlier.

FFE #14

The Robert Clarkson bequest - the plates used for the forgeries of George Kirke Jeffryes and the Cullum street gang

Class: TR

Christopher G. Harman

Interesting inventory of the plates used by the infamous forgers Benjamin, Sarpy & Jeffryes for production of forgeries from English colonies and some south American countries.

FFE #14

False Icelandic postmark from Reykjavik

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

Faked postmarks have been discovered on many different semi-modern issues from Iceland.

FFE #14

An extension to "A note for your attention"

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

Spanish falsifications. A continuation of the article in FFE # 6, May 2003 with more forgeries and manipulated covers with the earliest Spanish issues including some from former colonies.

FFE #14

The FILA-VIEW (Prototype)

Class: Other

Dieter Bortfeldt

Our expert is showing and giving some details about this equipment, which can be very helpful in expert work.

FFE #14

The settings of the Amiri Overprint

Class: TR

Hany Salam

Showing in details the setting of these scarce Egyptian overprints with descriptions as well as pictures of some complete sheets.

FFE #14

Manipulated Covers: A warning flag for experts

Class: PH

Robert P. Odenweller

An interesting documentation of pieces and covers from New Zealand with lifted stamps. All well explained with information and knowledge that could be used for pieces from any country.

FFE #14

Belgian comics 1908-1915

Class: PH

Morten J. Lintrup

A relaxed and interesting description of a few peculiar items from this period.

FFE #14

The first Yuri Gagarin flight official post mark

Class: Astro

Igor Rodin

Already now many faked cancellations exist on covers from this historic flight in 1961 with the first man in space.

FFE #14

Postal counterfeits of the 2c U.S. first bureau issue of 1894-1902. A guide to identification

Class: TR

John M. Hotchner

A detailed description of these counterfeits, which are the earliest U.S. postal forgeries.

FFE #14

"Martinsyde" manuscript overprint on the 3¢ Newfoundland Caribou stamp April 12, 1919

Class: Aero

J. Edward Nixon & Charles J. G.Verge

A comprehensive report about this fascinating \"stamp issue\". Also showing how things could be done during this historical epoch of pioneer flying and how much research it takes nowadays to sort out the corn of gold from the sand.

FFE #14

A forged Swedish saw-toothed cancellation stamp

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

Our expert is describing a fake of this unusually designed postmark.

FFE #15

Notes on the first issue of Bolivar 1863 - 1868

Class: TR

Dieter Bortfeldt

A very informative study of this interesting and rare issue with descriptions of various forgeries.

FFE #15

An examination of the negative Unghvar cancellation

Class: TR

Dénes Czirók

A study of a very rare letter from Carpathian Ukraine, which at different times has been part of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Ukraine and Soviet Union. Determined to be a forgery.

FFE #15

The damage ("oxidation") caused by plastic films can be reversed by treatment

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

Interesting explanation of an old problem, which sometimes can be corrected.

FFE #15

Forgeries of the barred "Rebellion-postmark" No. 35 of Segeberg

Class: TR

Carl Aage Møller

Description of the “most frequently forged” numeral cancellation.

FFE #15

Forgeries and Fakes on swedish Military Postal Stationery Envelope (M I ) "The most manipulated postal item from Sweden"

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

A detailed analysis and documentation of the usage of the first Swedish Military Reply Stamp. “The most forged Swedish postal item”.

FFE #15

Discovery of a new type of the Newfoundland one shilling produced by jean de Sperati

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

A detailed description of all the Sperati Newfoundland forgeries with the earlier known types A-D as well as the newly discovered type E.

FFE #15

Canadian Lunar Year issues - fakes - Part 2

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Modern forgeries. Another very instructive article about Canadian forgeries from the years 1999-2005.

FFE #15

RPSL Ltd - The Expert Commitee of the Royal Philatelic Society London

Class: TR

Christopher G. Harman

An “insider article” about the work of the RPSL´s Expert Committee and their working material of photos of past certificates, technical equipment and reference collections of genuine and forged stamps.

FFE #15

The Robert Clarkson bequest The plates and forgeries of George Kirke jeffryes and the Cullum street gang - Part 2

Class: TR

Christopher G. Harman

A continuation from FFE # 14 about these famous forgers of stamps from the British Commonwealth.

FFE #15

The history of the varnish ink stamps of Great Britain King George V

Class: TR

Trevor I. Harris

The expert is thoroughly explaining and documenting why British stamps were not originally printed with varnishing ink.

FFE #15

Hong Kong Post: Modern postal forgery - $ 50 (issue 2002)

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

A deep analysis of a modern forgery .

FFE #15

The fight against postal forgeries

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

A small story about postal forgeries from the early issues onwards and up to our days.

FFE #15

A little ramble through Memel-philiately

Class: TR

Tobias Huylmans

A very detailed description of overprint forgeries.

FFE #15

An example of doubtful "Degron-kun covers" or Franco-japanese combination covers

Class: TR

Jun Ichi Matsumoto

An extensive analysis of a Japanese – French combination cover from the classic period. A continuation of a series of articles about the “Degron – Kun Covers” in the FFE Journal.

FFE #15

How to distinguish flown covers from not flown covers

Class: TR

Igor Rodin

A very detailed and thorough explanation of various space flight covers, clearly describing the differences. Series of articles started in FFE # 10.

FFE #15

Early Japanese fakes and forgeries

Class: TR

Mamoru Sawa

Small presentation of various faked classic stamps and covers

FFE #15

Saint - Pierre et Miquelon: the number one

Class: TR

Jean-jaques Tillard

Clear descriptions and pictures of genuine, reprinted and forged surcharges.

FFE #15

Serbia 1866, Coat of Arms issue, forgeries and fakes

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

A detailed study of this issue with a well documented description of forgeries and faked cancellations.

FFE #15

The 1932 Newfoundland Wayzata label

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

An exciting story of the extensive efforts of trying to make an official airmail stamp out of a private label.

FFE #15

Local provisional issues of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina 1918 - 1944

Class: TR

Vilfan Mladen

An extensive documentation of overprints from this area and period. Including a lot of descriptions and pictures of many stamps and covers – genuine as well as forged.

FFE #15

Facts and opinions

Class: TR

Jean Francois Brun & Michéle chauvet

Two thorough analysis of two unique items; A Greek First Day Cover 1.10 1861 – A forgery. A Russian unique inverted centre – Genuine.

FFE #16

An introduction to my new editorship for the FFE Journal and an initiation of a few thoughts on restoration of philatelic material

Class: TR

Jonas Hällström

As the new editor of FFE Journal, Jonas Hällström introduce himself and his field of expertise defined as philatelic exhibiting and judging. The article addresses collectors, exhibitors and philatelic experts and deals with damaged philatelic material and the problem with restoration of philatelic material. On the latter subject, the article refers to three different examples from Costa Rica classic philately and postal history.

FFE #16

Swedish mail with replaced frankings and fakes

Class: TR

Roland Frahm

Roland Frahm has through the Swedish Philatelic Federation’s Expert Committee detected fakes on mail where the original franking has been replaced and changed or where the current franking is not the original. The purpose behind this manipulation of the franking is of course to increase the postal conditions of the mail and to increase the economical value. In this article a representative selection of faked items of mail are presented to alert collectors to be cautious and careful in their studies of mail from Sweden.

FFE #16

Contemorary Forged and Bogus Overprints on Adhesive Stamps and Postal Stationery

Class: TR

Alan Huggins

The article describes various GB and Colonies forgeries and bogus items recently offered at e.g. EBay. Stationeries with "SPECIMEN/PROOF" overprints, Great Britain with false overprints and various forged postmarks.

FFE #16

Congo free state bateau-poste fakes

Class: TR

Luc Vander Marcken

The postal history of the "Bateau-poste" on the river Congo between 1896 and 1902 and examples of faked stamp and covers with descriptions and illustrations.

FFE #16

Belgian Congo 1922 Issue - 'Typographic Boma Overprint' Fake oddity on the wrong sheet

Class: TR

Luc Vander Marcken

When the forger failed to take time to study the issue properly before making a fake overprint.

FFE #16

Congo Free state 1887 issue The unissued 10 francs grey- genuine or a forgery?

Class: TR

Luc Vander Marcken

A detailed description and analysis of this so-called "unissued stamp" but in fact a forgery.

FFE #16

Congo free state 1898 , 'Mols' issue 3.50 Franc Vermillion, with imperforated left margin

Class: TR

Luc Vander Marcken

How a forger can create scarce curiosity with a pair of scissors.

FFE #16

Expertising Marks on New South Wales Stamps and Covers

Class: TR

Ben Palmer

It is well known that before the advent of photo-certificates, expertisers applied their own markings to material. This article explores and illustrates various types of expertising marks found on the stamps and covers of New South Wales. Whilst many have been identified thanks to existing resources there are a number found which can not be attributed to a particular expertiser.

FFE #16

Some genuine and faked postmarks on the Swedish Värnamo-stamps from 1918

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

The Swedish stamps, Gustav V in Medallion 55 and 80 öre were printed in april 1918. However, the postage fee changed and only a small number of stamps were incorrectly sent to Värnamo in July, where some were postmarked. Later, the postmark have been antedated or forged several times.

FFE #16

The fakes, forgeries and wrongs of Space Mail from The "MIR" Space Station

Class: Astro

Viacheslav Klochko

The article under the title "The Fakes, Forgeries and Wrongs of Space Mail from the "Mir" Space Station" by V.Klochko of Russia is devoted to the problem of identification fakes and forgeries of space mail items. The author's researches are based on the genuine materials from his personal collection and information received directly from the crew members-participants of the expeditions at the "Mir" station.

FFE #16

Forged Overprints on South Australian 2/6 and 5/- Official Stamps

Class: TR

The Expert Committee, Royal Philatelic Society of Victoria

The Expert Committee of the Royal Philatelic Society of Victoria is internationally recognised as a providor of opinions regarding Australasia. The article describes the review and approach related to a pair of high face value South Australia stamps overprinted OS where the Committee’s opinion was that the overprints were forged.

FFE #16

Hong Kong Post: Modern postal forgeries

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

This article describes how to compare the genuine stamps with forgeries of the $ 3.00 and $ 5.00 from the 2005 issues of the Year of the Rooster, especially the perforation, kind of paper, printing method and different colour. The latest by using the Photoshop computer program.

FFE #16

False Postal Ferry Stamps from Denmark

Class: TR

Ib Krarup Rasmussen

The article shows that at some point in the late 1980´s there has been a mass production of forged overprinted Danish “Postfærge” stamps. The forged overprints are always made on used stamps all ready cancelled with ordinary Danish town cancels. The stamps are still on the market in large numbers. Genuine used “Postfærge” stamps are cancelled with very special characteristic postmarks that are very easy to distinguish from ordinary postmarks. Examples of forged and genuine stamps are shown.

FFE #16

Problem covers from Naples

Class: TR

Mario Mentaschi

The article shows that some letters, of the few prepaid with a 50 grana of the Neapolitan Provinces (about 30 recorded), were not correctly rated.Some frankings because letters were not complete, but others were forged because a lesser value postage stamp was substituted by the rare 50 grana

FFE #16

The faked Bull's Eyes covers of Diamantina

Class: TR

Bernd Juchert

Described in the article are two faked Bull`s Eyes covers from Diamantina in the Minas-Geraes province in Brazil in the postal historical context. For comparison are shown also genuine covers and cancels in the time of use.

FFE #16

A faked Bull's Eye Bahia letter

Class: TR

Bernd Juchert

The article describes a faked Bull`s Eye letter from Bahia and gives details for discovering the fake.

FFE #16

Faked DDSG Covers

Class: TR

Dr. Jovan Velickovic

Four covers with forged blue DOSG cachets, produced from various stampless covers.

FFE #16

Fakes and forgeries from Trieste, Gorizia, and the Slovene Littoral

Class: TR

Veselko Gustin

The territory of Slovene Littoral (Slov. Primorska) we understand the northern part of Julian Venetia (Italian Venezia Giulia). On this territory after the Italian occupation from the 1918 to 1919 there were used the provisional (temporary) issues ordered by Italian authorities: on Austro-Hungarian stamps from 1907 to 1918, and Italian stamps from 1910 - 18. All these provisional issues were used until the end of April, 1919. After the 1945 the story went in the opposite way. There were used some provisional issues with overprints on Italian stamps (1929-47) ordered first by Yugoslav military government, and latter by Allied Military Government (A.M.G.). In Zone A and B of Free territory of Trieste (F.T.T.), there were used A.M.G. overprints on the Italian stamps (1948-54), and overprints on Yugoslav stamps, respectively. There are many forgeries on overprint, and especially on cancellations.

FFE #16

Color Perception and Electronic Sampling in Philately: How Reliable Is It?

Class: TR

Robert P. Odenweller

Accurate classification of colors and shades of stamps has intrigued philatelists for many years. Some feel that scanners and the ability to sample colors using computer programs might offer a solution. This article shows that serious questions remain to be resolved before such use could be likely.

FFE #16

A Canadian local to discourage the use of a mail service

Class: TR

Charles J. G. Verge

The article looks at the production history and varieties of the labels issued by the Upper Columbian Tramway and Navigation Co. (U. C. Co.) in British Columbia at the end of the 19th Century. Through an historical review of the company’s activities, the author proves that virtually all usages of the labels are philatelic in nature.

FFE #16

New Brunswick Pence forgeries by Oneglia

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Erasmo Oneglia forged all the values of the first issue of New Brunswick. Some of these forgeries can still be found as genuine items in some dealers stock or on various auction sites on the internet. Many of these forgeries are also very scarce and many specialists collect them as reference material. The articles describes simple tests to be able to identify the engraved forgeries of this famous Italian forger.

FFE #16

Nova Scotia Forgeries by Oneglia

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Erasmo Oneglia forged all the issues of Nova Scotia. Some of these forgeries can still be found as genuine items in some dealers stock or on various auction sites on the internet. Many of these forgeries are also very scarce and many specialists collect them as reference material. The articles describes simple tests to be able to identify the engraved forgeries of this famous Italian forger.

FFE #16

Digital Image Enhancement

Class: TR

David Rockoff & Mike Jackson

The article describes digital image processing to better visualise postmarks on stamps, as used in our book the Encyclopaedia of the Maltese Cross. The techniques described can be accomplished using widely-available image editing software. The most useful kind of image enhancement was found to be 'channel splitting', where a colour image is split into its component channels, each channel being a greyscale image.

FFE #16

Letters and Stamps truths, but... forgeries letters

Class: TR

Pedro Vaz Pereira

In Portugal circular bar cancellations were used to obliterate the stamps during the 1st & 2nd Postal Reform periods. On the covers were also a put nominative postmark showing the place where the letters were delivered. Stamps were often removed by collectors and sometimes other stamps were put in later. They are forgeries.

FFE #16

The 1932 2d George V Postal forgery of Australia

Class: TR

Geoffrey Kellow

Discription of Australia 1932 Postal Forgeries of 2d Georg V produced by Charles Jackson, Kensington, Sydney and discovered by the philatelist Dr. E.C. Black.

FFE #16

Spain Official Issue 1855 - Two different Printings

Class: TR

Eduardo Escalada-Goicoechea

An elusive issue printed in Madrid as well as in Havana. Usage and printing differences explained as well as the forgeries.

FFE #16

Philately without an Expert!

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

FFE #16

The Forgeries of the first Japanese issues, the Spiro Brothers

Class: TR

James Van der Linden

The author thoroughly describes the imitation industry of the Spiro-brothers of Hamburg and quotes interesting correspondence between Spiro and the Belgian expert philatelist Moens. A number of Japanese 1871-88 reproductions are analyzed and compaired with originals.

FFE #16

Using Postal History to Detect Forgeries

Class: TR

Michèle Chauvet

FFE #17

Afghanistan: Forgeries, Reprints and Proofs of Small Tiger Head Issues of Kingdom Kabul

Class: TR

Jaromir Petrik

The series of small tiger heads 1876-1878 (altogether 3 issues) were printed in several colours. The colour of the stamps was characteristic for each post office - for Kabul in shades of green, for Peshawar in grey, for Taschkurghan in purple and for Jallalabad in brown. The stamps in black were not allocated to any post office. The status of these stamps has been debated for more than 90 years. According to some catalogues and experts they are considered as forgeries, others take them as reprints or proofs. There was a famous dispute between British collector Colonel H. Appleton with experts of the Royal Philatelic Society of London between 1924 and 1925.

FFE #17

Canada: Collection of De Thuin Bisects of the Atlantic Provinces

Class: TR

Charles Verge

The Vincent Graves Greene Philatelic Research Foundation's Expert Committee (Greene Foundation) was asked to adjudicate on the authenticity of 25 covers all bearing bisects from the four provinces of Atlantic Canada: New Brunswick (NB), Newfoundland (NL), Nova Scotia (NS) and Prince Edward Island (PEI). The collection was the property of well-known and respected United States philatelic dealer, who likely knew what they were and never marketed them at any time in his long career. The collection was submitted by his estate, through an agent, to the Greene Foundation for expertisation in 2011. The study of the covers started with research in the literature particularly the American Philatelic Society's (APS) handbook The Yucatan Affair: The Work of Raoul Ch. de Thuin, Philatelic Counterfeiter, which was compiled by a specialist APS editorial staff and published in 1974. The author also consulted with Mercer Bristow, Director of the APS's Expert Committee. As a second step, each cover was examined and annotated. The results of this research and examination were submitted to the Expert Committee members on December 19, 2011. The Expert Committee agreed with the findings and issued certificates on December 28, 2011 for 24 of the 25 covers indicating that they were de Thuin forgeries. On the same day a certificate was issued for the 25th cover (NL 29b ), also a forgery, indicating it could not definitively be assigned to de Thuin . The wording on the certificates for the 24 de Thuin forgeries includes the words "a forgery created by de Thuin". The other does not mention de Thuin but clearly states it is a forgery.

FFE #17

Experts: Digital microscopes and UV-light

Class: TR

Paul Linde

With the technology development new possibilities for analysis and documentation opens up. What earlier only could be seen from the lens of the microscope is today possible to digitalize and enhance with the help of computers at a reasonable price. Bringing computers and large screen analysis into the investigation of stamps will ensure quality and enrich the business. Technology used in this article is from Dino-Lite at a total cost under 1.000 Euro. The process used in this article is a combined study using both cold white light and cold UV-light. The microsopes can magnify 250 times and projects a 5 megapixel image to the computer screen. The magnification range is about 1-70x and 180-250x. The computer is used to see the magnification and it is possible to record it and take pictures through the process while investigating the stamp.

FFE #17

Experts: Looking at Pre-Philatelic Ink

Class: PH

Dieter Bortfeld

For about 20 years I have dedicated my spare time and from 2001 onwards full time to investigations of Colombian philately. At first studying the stamp issues with all reprint and forgeries as well as identifications of them, printing techniques and stones and plates used, etc. About 15 years ago a large quantity of pre-philatelic covers and documents appeared on the market, which at a first glance seemed to be genuine as far as I was able to determine at the time. However I have to admit that I issued some certificates stating to be genuine and not Forgeries as we know now. This was the reason why I started to investigate Postal History and history as such in order to solve aspects of the letters in question and about use of postal markings, designs and colours and inks. In many ways my profession as graphic designer and graphic arts specialist helped a lot. There are 3 ways I have explored during the last years with results explained in the following: 1) Use of Photoshop; 2) Spectros; 3) Contra Test.

FFE #17

Experts: Retroreveal - A new tool

Class: TR

Robert P. Odenweller

Technology has, in recent years, offered many new ways to look at stamps and covers. Not that many years ago, all we had was a magnifying glass or two, probably 3x and 10x, a watermark tray, and a UV lamp. Photography using filters and other advanced techniques was an option, but took time and special equipment for the best results. Even UV and infrared inspection needed help when it came to "seeing" things that were outside of the range of normal eyesight. Then came some very sophisticated, but very expensive, options, such as X-ray fluorescence and Raman inspection that would show the actual inorganic components to inks and paper. Slightly less costly are machines such as the VSC-6000, which can analyze colors in various lighting conditions, among other things. These are becoming more affordable to the point that certain major philatelic organizations, such as the RPSL and the Smithsonian National Postal Museum can acquire them. Still, interpreting the significance of the results from these units usually requires someone highly skilled in their use.So it's refreshing to find a new tool that is free, and which can give results that may be far more useful than one could imagine. Faint postmarks or overprints can often be difficult to see under normal conditions. Using special techniques may help, but the average philatelist may not have the skill or the necessary program, let alone the knowledge of the steps that are needed to get the desired results.This new program is available at www.retroReveal.org, hosted by the J. Willard Marriott Library of Utah University. Disregard the technical aspects of how it works; just let it do its thing. That, simply, is to put a scan (preferably) or a digital photo on the website, press one button, and then examine all the possible outcomes. All are in black and white, and most will be of little use. Do not despair. One or more of the many images is likely to reveal hidden details that will make the effort worthwhile.

FFE #17

Experts: Technology in detecting of Fakes & Forgeries

Class: TR

John H. Barwis

Detection of spurious philatelic items is important not only for maintaining the integrity of our hobby, but for our continued enjoyment of it. No collector wants to suffer the disappointment, embarrassment or economic loss from having acquired an inauthentic stamp or cover. The purpose of this article is to review how analytical techniques might - in certain circumstances - help establish authenticity. "Technology" is not a piece of equipment or an analytical process per se. Rather, it is the application of scientific or engineering knowledge to solve a problem or to answer a question. Readers of this journal know that many suspect items can be adequately evaluated using a magnifying glass, watermark detector and an ultraviolet lamp, each used in conjunction with technical expertise about what is already known to be genuine. But sometimes our everyday examination methods are insufficient. For example, modern technology might well have detected Sperati's reproductions of the 10 shilling brown violet of Lagos, as related by Stoltz (1983). Sperati used the correct paper by chemically removing the images from the 1903 Crown Colony chalky paper issue, so paper thickness, watermark and perforations were all genuine. But in removing the original images from the paper the chalk was also removed, and the paper resized with gelatin and alum. These chemical differences could easily be detected today by nondestructive analyses. Sperati made his own inks, but today\'s non- destructive tests would enable comparison of the elemental and mineralogical content of inks on the forged vs. genuine stamps.

FFE #17

Experts: The digital revolution to philately

Class: TR

Jean-Francois Brun

Nobody can ignore the changes in daily life by the digital revolution. nitially used in scientific and military fields, computers have been introduced gradually in industrial or commercial enterprises. Costs were high, the manufacturers rented their equipment that requires regular maintenance, computer scientists, appropriate places, etc.This was in the seventies. The minicomputer gradually invaded the companies; more and more people were employed in the design, construction, maintenance and use of these machines. It is not unreasonable to equip yourself, and some philatelic firms start to take a closer look: description of lots, creating a catalogue, customer management - buyers or sellers - can be done with these new materials. But their price keeps most stamp dealers away from this equipment.The general public does not feel directly affected by what is completely strange for him, even if he sometimes looks at the impact of it. The real revolution comes in 1981 with the release of the "PC" (personal computer) by IBM. Somewhat against its will, IBM becomes interested in its concept a few years earlier. It is the advent of the microcomputer. In 1983 Apple sells its millionth Apple II.

FFE #17

Germany: Pre-War German "Essay Michel Nr. 784 P9"

Class: TR

Udo Gross

By mere chance I became familiar with the title subject of this contribution when reading a German stamp auction catalogue. Surprisingly, I found a 5 Pf dark-green Adolf Hitler definitive stamp of Deutsches Reich 1941 specially recommended. This piece should be remarkable due to an outstanding bismuth sulphide, Bi2S3, addition to the printing colour pigment. This bismuth- compound immediately found my interest as a scientist and stamp collector. After some time I was able to buy one exemplar with a certificate by the late German BPP Emil Ludin* in an internet shop for a moderate price, while by auction about 100. - Euro and more had to be paid.

FFE #17

Great Britain: Forgeries of the £5 Orange

Class: TR

John Horsey

The Five Pound Orange is the pride and joy of many a Great Britain collection and a sadly unfilled gap in countless more. It is the most iconic Victorian stamp of Great Britain, second only to the Penny Black. The £5 Orange is not scarce - most major UK auctions tend to have one or more in each sale. There is never a problem finding one: it is merely a question of price and, being expensive, it has attracted the attention of many forgers. It is a popular item, missing from most collections, and most GB collectors would wish to own one. There is a strong temptation to buy a £5 Orange especially if it appears a bargain - however there may be a reason it is cheaper than normal. Caveat emptor! This article is based on the Author's recent book 'The £5 Orange' which devotes nearly 30 pages to its forgeries and the methods of detecting them. While naturally orientated towards the £5 Orange, many aspects of the book are equally applicable to other stamps. Of general interest are the methods for detecting regummed, reperforated and repaired stamps and the use of modern technology in comparing stamp images to search for plate varieties or compare cancels, to analyse colours, to reveal erased cancels or to detect forgeries.

FFE #17

India: Forgeries Princely State Revenues

Class: TR

Jiri Cerny

So far, forgers have not concentrated on the Indian Princely State Revenues to a large extent, contrary to the postage stamps. Most of the known forgeries are very crude and the forgeries are thusly not dangerous. As the most encountered forgeries from this area of revenue philately is an inverted centre of Bhor small Revenue stamp. This forgery often appears even at major auction houses, unrecognized as a forgery.

FFE #17

Iraq: Forgeries and Fakes of the Baghdad Provisionals

Class: TR

Akthem Al-Manaseer

The Baghdad Provisional stamps were issued on September 1, 1917, in Mesopotamia/Iraq shortly after the British forces occupied the city of Baghdad. They found very limited quantities of Turkish stamps to be overprinted "Baghdad In British occupation." With respect to the process of over- printing these stamps, Sir Percy Cox the Civil Commissioner writes a note on 15th September 1917 stating: "it must be explained that owing to the varied types and dimensions of the stamps with which we had to deal it was not possible to make any one hand of machine stamp which would suffice for over-printing all sizes and we had therefore to have recourse to the laborious expedient of stamping each stamp separately by hand in four separate operations."Although the over-printing work was done in four separate operations, it is not known if single or multiple stamps were overprinted in each operation. When the Baghdad stamps were issued, British residences were allowed to make only one purchase of these stamps. Individuals were asked to sign in a book at the post office after obtaining the stamps. Due to the limited quantities only 8 Annas worth of stamps were sold in matchboxes to these individuals. Figure 1 illustrates stamps obtained from one of these matchboxes that were placed on an envelope.

FFE #17

Iraq: Analyzing the Mystery of the "Red Star" on the Baghdad In British Occupation Provisionals

Class: TR

Akthem Al-Manaseer & Abed Najjar

The issue of overprinted enemy stamps was a very desirable propaganda action after the British Indian forces Occupied Baghdad. After the fall of Baghdad on 11th March 1917 stocks of Turkish stamps captured through the quantity was insufficient for overprinting. Since any remaining stocks had probably been looted by the local inhabitants, the Chief Political Officer made it known that he was prepared to receive and pay for any remaining stamps. By August of that year limited quantities were available from different Turkish stamps to be overprinted "BAGHDADIN BRITISH OCCUPATION" and with values in Indian currency. Some of the Baghdad stamps with similar designs exist with and without a red star.

FFE #17

Netherlands: Forged Hang Blocks in value 0,44 and 0,88

Class: TR

Henk W. van der Vlist

In the beginning of 2009 somebody tried to sell on the stamp market in Amsterdam, and in the "stamp café", "The Netherland 'hang blocks'" in denomination values € 0,44 and € 0,88. We call them 'hang blocks' because they are hanging on special boards, therefore the 'blocks' do have the special 'hang eye' perforation. The 'hang blocks' were offered for less than half the price of the nominal postage value. Potential buyers who were offered them thought these 'hang blocks' came from a theft, and only a few were willing to buy them and the seller decided to quit selling in Amsterdam. One of the offered buyers didn't trust these 'hang blocks' and he asked me to examine them. After a very quick examination I found out that they were not printed in rotogravure as the original ones, but printed by using a special copier (a kind of pseudo offset).

FFE #17

New Brunswick: Discovery of a printing plate used for the forgeries of the first issues

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Ten years ago, I received an email from Mr. Daniel Marchand in Belgium (1) who wanted information on a copper printing plate of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia One shilling he had found in a Brussels junk shop about twenty years ago. The photographic image he had sent did not make it possible for me to evaluate his discovery properly. Last year, he contacted me again and wanted to have some kind of evaluation on the value of such a plate. This time, he sent much better pictures that enabled me to confirm that this plate had been produced by the so-called "Forger A" described in Nicholas Argenti, The Postage Stamps of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, issued in 1962. After numerous email exchanges, I was finally able to convince him to donate the cooper plate to the Canadian Museum of Civilization, located in Gatineau, Québec, also responsible of the Canadian Postal Museum artifacts.

FFE #17

Nicaragua: The Forgeries of Nicaragua

Class: TR

Alan Derek Pockock

Coming then to the "unofficial" items for Nicaragua the almost standard activities of those hoping to make money from the collector, there are the well recognised first issues. Because Nicaragua was so prolific in its stamp producing ways with plentiful reproductions made from the original plates when the stamps had been replaced by later issues, it is surprising that anyone bothered to create copies whose identification from the genuine was so obvious. Yet there were individuals who saw a profit from making false images of the first issue in spite of the relative ease with which the "Genuine" - albeit created after the stamp was obsolete- was so easily available.

FFE #17

Nova Scotia: The Fake Stamps of the cents series made by Oneglia

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Erasmo Oneglia faked all the stamps of the Cents series (1860-1863) of the province of Nova Scotia. His forgeries are listed in his own catalogs issued in 1897, 1899, 1900 and 1906. Reverend Robert Brisco Earée described all the values of these forgeries produced by Oneglia in the third edition of his book Album Weeds published in 1906. Oneglia used the technique of engraving on copper plate thus producing stamps that are now considered amongst the finest fakes of this Eastern Canadian province. Oneglia made and perforated all his forgeries one by one so no pairs or blocks can exist.

FFE #17

Prekins & Bacon: The Star Watermarked Paper

Class: TR

Chris Harman

To the best of my knowledge, since the analysis in The Stamps of Barbados by E. D. Bacon and F. H. Napier, published by Stanley Gibbons Ltd, 1896, nothing much has been written about the star watermarked papers used for the many stamps printed by Perkins, Bacon for the British Colonies. Recently I was shown what could have been a new variety of the first Britannia design stamp of Barbados with Large Star watermark sideways; a stamp which, until that time, had only been recorded with watermark upright. This led me to study the star watermarked papers more closely since I have for many years owned complete sheets of both the Small Star paper and the Broad Pointed Star paper. I have heard that a complete sheet of the Large Star watermarked paper exists but have not been able to ascertain whether this is true. In their book on Barbados, Bacon and Napier use a block of an issued stamp in order to illustrate the Large Star paper since they did not have access to an unprinted sheet. Nevertheless the Broad Star watermark has the same overall dimensions as the Large Star and is thus useful in studying the printing. It is only the width of the points of the star that are different.

FFE #17

Sweden: Forged Stamps 2003-2013

Class: TR

Gunnar Dahlstrand

Referring to an earlier article in this journal #12 of May 2009 "Forged Swedish Stamps 2004-2008" by Ingvar Larsson, the time has come for a more comprehensive cataloguing of industrially produced forgeries of Swedish stamps. The cataloguing is ordered chronologically in the order stamps were issued from the Post Office printing works. In some cases the same stamp has appeared in more than one forged edition. Up to the autumn of 2013, 86 stamp topics have been forged. Counting all 32 editions we get a total of 114 forgeries!

FFE #17

Sweden: Genuine and Forged Surcharges on the Swedish Airmail Stamps of 1920

Class: TR

Peter Lorentzon

From an international point of view Swedish stamps have been relatively exempted from forgers. Yet a number of classic issues and a few surcharge stamps have been subject to the treatment of a number of swindlers. A recent example is the Swedish airmail stamps from 1920. During the making a small number of surcharges turned upside down were created by mistake. Even a few sheets with unusual watermarks were surcharged. These are rare attributes that are very sought after by collectors. Unfortunately these attributes have also caught the eye of the swindler.

FFE #17

Sweden: Shades on the Early Swedish stamps

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller-Wilén

There are few countries in the world whose earliest stamps having such an abundance of shades that the first Swedish. During most of the 1800's the printing colours were mineral dyes, which were grated to powder and mixed with linseed oil and a drying agent to a suitable printing colour. This was done on many occasions during the printing of a stamp. The recipes were approximate and lack of knowledge about the nature of different colours and colour blends contributed to the amount of colour shades. Mineral colours used were lightproof and time-resistant. The shades are therefore the same now as they were in the mid-1800's. This large number of shades of the same denomination has led to that Swedish philatelists early began to collect and study the shades of the classic stamps. In a handbook of Swedish stamps printed in 1915, the authors wrote that they have paid much attention to the different shades. Of 4 skilling banco five different shades were described. In the next handbook, published in 1936, a whole chapter is attended to the shades of the stamps. The handbook now describes 12 different shades of 4 skilling banco. In the Swedish stamp catalogue FACIT Special 2013, 21 different shades are described. In order to classify the shades of the earliest stamps you must pay attention to: The Colour; The Paper; The Printing; The Perforation; The Postmark; Date of delivery from the storage room at the General Post Office to the local post offices.

FFE #17

USA: The 13c JFK 1967 Counterfeits

Class: TR

John Hotchner

In this The Information Age there remain many questions in modern philately for which there are no definite answers. Sometimes this is caused by lack of information released to the public. Other times what is reported and interpreted is spotty and contradictory. The field of U.S. postal counterfeits is one such area; and the Kennedy counterfeits is an example of both causes at work. U.S. postal counterfeits is a field of study with two distinct time periods. The first is what I will call the classic period from 1894 to 2002. If that seems like a long time for "classic", it is the period where counterfeiting seems to have been a cottage industry, limited to production in the United States, and with relatively few U.S. stamps being counterfeited.

FFE #17

Zululand: The £5 Forgery

Class: TR

Peter Whitmore & Clive Sergay

I was alerted in 2003 to a mint copy of the £5 duty in a London based auction catalogue which, although had good provenance, did not look genuine, particularly in comparison with the 3 further copies illustrated alongside. Following this the authors embarked on a search for similar copies and to date we can report that we have located two further mint examples, but more surprisingly a larger number have been found genuinely cancelled in Zululand. The oddity of the existence of the used examples caused the authors to embark on a quest to find an explanation for their existence. The £5 key plate value was ordered along with other values to form the second set of stamps, which was to have values sufficient enough to cover the needs of the territory replacing both the overprinted GB stamps intended for postage and the set of overprinted Natal revenue values to be used for fiscal purposes. Accordingly the £1 and £5 values were included in the set. Several used copies of the £20 Natal overprinted revenue value can today be found reflecting that this value was occasionally used on documents so it would be possible to use 4 of the £5 duty to cover this requirement and no higher value would be needed. Further looking at the postal rates particularity for parcels, the maximum weight of a parcel would be exceeded long before the postal rate would reach the need to utilise this value for postage. Accordingly the used copies of the £5 duty will have been used for fiscal purposes notwithstanding the number that exist that may have been cancelled to order or kind favour at the request of collectors and/or dealers to complete a used set.

FFE #18

The World's Most Forensically Tested Philatelic Gem:"The Iconic Victor Hugo Plate 77 Cover"

Class: TR

Abed Najjar

With only eight examples known to still exist, the Great Britain 1858‐79 1d rose‐red showing a plate number 77 must be one of the world’s greatest philatelic rarities. A cover addressed in the hand of the famous author Victor Hugo franked with three newly discovered used examples of this stamp can only be regarded as a "World‐Class Philatelic Gem" (Figure 1). The Victor Hugo cover which was mailed from Guernsey to Brussels on Monday 27th November 1865 was franked at the correct 3d rate for mail from the United Kingdom to Belgium by using 3x 1d values from the 1858‐79 issue. The cover was carried by Steam Ship `Brittany´ under its Captain Goodridge which sailed from Guernsey to Southampton. It was then carried by rail to London, then by rail to Dover and then by steam ship to Ostend. The cover made its final destination to Brussels by train. It carries all the correct transit and arrival markings.

FFE #18

The Use of X-Ray Microfluorescence to Detect Faking Using Paints

Class: TR

Abed Najjar

The application of paints in order to fake, strengthen or restore missing or worn features on stamps is a procedure that has been widely adopted for decades. Expertly applied this procedure can be so good that it can easily deceive even the expert eyes. It is therefore perfectly understandable how such a procedure can be used in order to alter stamps of little value in order to produce valuable fakes and forgeries of rare stamps with a view to deceive a buyer. The applied faking ink in the vast majority of cases, although identical in colour, will not be the same ink as that which printed the stamps themselves and while in the past it would have been practically impossible to be definitive that there were two different paints on a single stamp, we can now be more certain of our conclusions by using state of the art analytical equipment which can detect both the atomic and the molecular constituents of the compounds in a paint/ink that has been used to print or fake a stamp.

FFE #18

Using Perforation Fingerprints to Classify Stamps as Having "Non-Compliant" Perforations

Class: TR

David B. Escott

Stamp collectors, stamp dealers and stamp expertisers classify the perforations on a stamp as being either "genuine" or "fake". This article is a critique of the process of this decision‐making, highlighting the repercussions that can ensue from the current practice and proposes an improvement to it. Firstly, consider the following three points:
__ A. In many cases, the determination of which term should be used is based on the belief that sufficient factors exist (by general observation), indicating that perforations are either genuine or fake. In some cases this decision appears to be borderline.
__ B. In other cases, the determination can stem from the basic assumption that if the perforations on a stamp cannot be proven to be fake then they must be considered to be genuine.
__C. However, if one regards the method of assessment described in B above as sufficiently scientific for acceptable decision‐making, then the reverse argument must also apply, i.e. if the perforations on a stamp cannot be proven to be genuine, then they must be considered fake.

FFE #18

Stop Associating `Conservation´ with `Restoration´

Class: TR

Daisy Todd

It´s glaringly obvious through general conversation with philatelists, and through reading philatelic articles, that there is much confusion about the use of the terms `conservation´ and `restoration.´ It follows that as a professionally trained ‘conservator´, that I am customarily regarded as a `restorer.´ It is true, that when I meet people and they ask what I do for a living, I say `art restoration´ because the gist of this term will be far better understood than if I say `I am a conservator specialising in the conservation of paper-based artifacts´. This colloquial and interchangeable use of the two terms however, is altering the perception and acceptance of conservation in the philatelic arena, to the detriment of philatelic collections all over the world. In order to stop this misguided association of conservation with `restoration´, and thus `alteration´, `manipulation´ and `forgery´, this article will clarify the terms of conservation and restoration, and explain exactly how they each relate to philately.

FFE #18

North-Ingria II Series Stamps: Separating Forged from Genuine by the Properties of Fibre Structure

Class: TR

Jouni Takalo

Traditionally forgeries have been recognized e.g. from paper colour, printing type and colours, printing accuracy as different colours are printed separately on the sheets of stamps, and differences in the stamp layout etc. However, even the colours of genuine stamps are varying sometimes quite strikingly (figure 1) where we depict three genuine and one forged North‐Ingria (also North-Ingermanland, later N-I) series II 5 mark stamps. Our aim is to give one more precise method to distinguish genuine and forged by the properties of the underlying paper i.e. by studying the fibre structure of the paper.

FFE #18

Iceland - The 1897 3 Þrir Surcharge

Class: TR

Claes Arnrup

In Iceland late 1897, the 3 aur stamps were sold out and due to the long delivery time from Copenhagen a provisional issue was made by surcharging green 5 aur stamps. At first a total of 86 sheets of 100 were surcharged with a red figure "3". As this was not found satisfactory, all of these sheets and another 50 without the red "3" were surcharged in black with "Þrír" (=three), usually written "Prir" when the Icelandic character "Þ" is not available, although it would be more correct to write and pronounce it thrir (English "th" sound). Most of the 86 sheets with the red "3" were in perforation 12¾. However, a small but unknown number of sheets came from the early issue of 5 aur in perforation 14 x 13½. These are the ones I am going to focus on. In the top six rows of the sheets (60 stamps) the word Þrir was set with small letters and in the four bottom rows with somewhat larger letters, resulting in two different types

FFE #18

The Kingdom of Prussia Number #1 stamp of 1851: An X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Colour and Ink

Class: TR

Udo Gross

The first printing of Prussian stamps took place in 1850 on watermarked handmade paper. The stamp of this study, the orange‐red Freimarke of ½ Silbergroschen/6 Pfennige was issued at 5/1/1851 printed by the Deckersche Ho􀆟uchdruckerei in Berlin. It shows the portrait of the Prussian Emperor King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795‐1861). Although this stamp is not rare and non‐expensive it is widely known because of its tendency to strong colour degradation and darkening. The first description of this fact came from Paul Ohrt in 1896, explaining the colour change by the conjected use of lead chromate, PbCrO4, as ink. All later publications took over this plausible assumption without having chemical‐physical evidence by an investigation. This article describes for the first time an X‐ray spectroscopic study which characterizes ink, paper and cancel.

FFE #18

Overprint Fakes on the Stamp Series of Yugoslavia - "Tourism" and "Postal Service"

Class: TR

Vladimir Milic

This article represents in one way an extension of the article by Jovan Velickovic, "Dangerous Overprint Forgeries On The Postage Stamps of Yugoslavia From Recent Years", published in FFE #2 (1999). The author was the late professor Jovan Velickovic, philatelic expert of SF Serbia, BPP proofer and member of the FIP Commission for the fight against forgeries. In fact that article provided an overview of previously registered fakes on definitive stamps of Yugoslavia, created in the period from 1990. In this analysis will be presented all so far identified faked overprints on definitive stamps of Yugoslavia with the topic of "Tourism" and "Postal Service" – but, as it will be seen, only in form of errors specialties: shifted, double or inverted overprints. All presented overprint fakes were made with the intention to fraud collectors, not the postal administration.

FFE #18

Forged Belgian Railway Cancel on Forged Medaillon Cover

Class: PH

Paul Wijnants

Forging stamps and/or covers is as ancient as philately itself. A few of them turn forging into an art with a never seen perfection and for many experts very hard to detect. Regretfully, and lucky enough for the experts, many "want to be forgers" are working careless and above all are having a very poor philatelic knowledge. With the sale of the "Karpov" collection (one of the biggest collections ever of Belgium) at David Feldman in Geneva, a lot of classic Belgium material was offered for sale. The achieved results were never seen before and that’s what attracts forgers. See what’s on the market and try to create a fantastic item by using bogus stamps and/or cancels.

FFE #18

Forged Stamps, Overprints, Perforations and Cancellations from Former Netherlands Territory Surinam

Class: TR

Hendrik W. van der Vlist

In October 2013 the second part of the book "Posthistorie van het Rijksdeel Suriname 1650‐1975", written by W.K. Erfmann and E.B. Stuut, was published by the ‘Nederlandse Vereniging van Poststukken‐ en Poststempelverzamelaars ©’. In the book is not only written about the postal history of Surinam, but also about forgeries of Surinam. In two chapters all kind of different types of forged stamps, overprints on stamps, perforations and cancellations on stamps, on cover and on post cards are discussed in more than 90 pages, including references, and illustrated by more than 400 figures. All forged stamps and overprints are compared with genuine stamps and overprints. Most of them illustrated with enlarged parts of stamps and overprints. To better study differences between genuine and counterfeit items, the figures are manipulated by using colour changing. These both chapters are the most comprehensive descriptions of the forgeries, overprints, perforations and cancellations from the period of the former Netherlands territory of Surinam. It is not possible to show all the figures, including descriptions of all these forgeries in this article.

FFE #18

Anatomy of a Balloon

Class: TR

Michele Chauvet

The Franco‐Prussian War of 1870‐1871 is certainly the most popular French period of postal history enthusiasts. It must be recognized that it offers collectors the jewels of a rich and original philately that can not be found in the history of any other country: ballons montés (= balloon mail), boules de Moulins, pigeongrams have become true legends of French philately. Of course, when the letters are very popular because particularly scarce, we all know it is wise to use the expertise. But to some documents, the first step is mere a matter of historical knowledge and logical reasoning rather than the expertise that will intervene only later to confirm the verdict.

FFE #18

The 1847 US Number One Stamp Franklin 5c an Experimental Colour and Ink Study

Class: TR

Udo Gross

Originally I started the "bluish paper" project of Scott US #357‐369 of 1909. Actually, the bluish shade is greyish due to a 30% admixture of cotton rag to the wood pulp in the paper making process. By vibrational analysis, FT‐IR ATR, it should be possible to verify genuine spectroscopic differences of the celluloses' provenience and its processing. Unfortunately, possessing only a Scott # 369 (2c Lincoln red) and Scott 361 (believed to be one!), I was unsatisfied and quitted not having certified stamps of the row. Nevertheless, I stayed with US classic, when I refreshed my memory by reading the philatelic articles of the late Calvet M. Hahn* of his colour re‐examination of US number #1 in 1986 [1] and the contributions of Carroll Chase in the 1916 Philatelic Gazette [2]. The black 10c Washington number #2 is indeed more expensive, but uninteresting to chemists because of a boring carbon black as ink.

FFE #18

The U.S. 2c 3rd Bureau Issue Assaulted by Counterfeiters

Class: TR

John M. Hotchner

It is a matter of some amazement that 24 years passed between the first and second successful sets of efforts to get counterfeit U.S. stamps into circulation for use as postage. The first attempts had been in 1895 and 1896, replicating the 2c of the ”First Bureau Issue” of 1894 (see FFE #14, page 157‐160).

FFE #18

New Discovery of Engraved Forgeries of Newfoundland First Issues

Class: TR

Richard Gratton

Extremely dangerous new engraved forgeries of the first issues of Newfoundland have been found on the philatelic market recently. Newfoundland first issues have been forged quite often by famous forgers such as: Spiro, Senf, Oneglia and Sperati. The Newfoundland forgeries were easy to detect up to now. The printing techniques used by the forgers were quite different from that of the genuine stamps (except for Oneglia who also used intaglio). The papers were different and the different shades were quite easy to recognize.

FFE #18

Réunion

Class: TR

Benoît Chandanson

Small island of 2,500 km² located in the Indian Ocean. Réunion (previously île Bourbon) is part of the Mascarenes, near the Tropic of Capricorn. The island was a stop on the route to India and was settled in the 17th century. The vegetation is lush ‐ coffee culture, cloves and nutmeg developed here. Industrialization and the population continued to increase. Quickly, a postal service was established. Little brothers of the Post Office, the first postage stamps were issued in 1852. In 1860 and as in all former colonies, Reunion received stamps of Eagle issue. Opened in New Caledonia in 1881, overprints on stamps of general emissions of the colonies were blooming the following years. End of 1885, there seemed to be a lack of 5c stamps, 10c and 25c on Réunion. December 19, 1885 an order of the Governor therefore required overprinting 300,000 remaining unused stamps: 30c Napoleon, 40c Eagle, 40c Ceres and 40c Sage. Another decree of 20 May 1886 enabled the production of 80,000 stamps to 5c and 20c from 30c Sage stocks.

FFE #18

Fakes of The Mosul Provisionals

Class: TR

Akthem Al-Manaseer

Two issues were made by the Indian Expeditionary Forces (I.E.F.´D`) in Mesopotamia during 1917 and 1919 to serve first the area controlled by Anglo‐Indian Expeditionary Forces towards the end of the first Great War and in the Mosul Vilayet following the armistice of 1918. The first issue for Baghdad was of a very limited quantity and rapidly increased in value. Many fakes and forgeries were made on the issue and were discussed in two previous articles. [Forgeries and Fakes of the Baghdad Provisionals by A.A. Al‐Manaseer in FFE #17 and Analyzing the Mystery of the ‘Red Star, on the Baghdad in British Occupation Provisionals by A.A. Al‐Manaseer & A.H.Najjar in FFE #17.]. The second issue for the Mosul Vilayet (district) located north of Iraq was of much larger quantities. However it was initially thought that the print numbers were similar to the Baghdad issue and speculators bought quantities in the hope of making a quick profit. There are few genuinely known overprint varieties on the Mosul provisionals that are faked. This will be the subject of this article.

FFE #18

A Dangerous Chalon Forgery

Class: TR

Robert P. Odenweller

Collectors of classic New Zealand have been lucky. The skilful forgers of the past, such as Fournier and Sperati chose to use their talents making forgeries of the classics of other countries. Even the best of the forgeries of the New Zealand Chalons was crude and easily detected. Until now.

FFE #18

Reference Marks - The Use of Reference Marks for the Identification and Authentication of Postage Stamps

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun

Without a general definition acceptable for Philately, I propose the following: Reference marks: graphic details of a stamp to differentiate it from another stamp, or to locate it in a sheet. The following examples were chosen to show the advantages and problems of systematic use of "reference marks".

FFE #18

Forgeries and Falsifications of Philatelic Literature - A First Look Back

Class: Other

Wolfgang Maassen

When the editor of the FFE Journal first asked me in August 2014 if I was willing to write an article on forgeries in philatelic literature ("Would it be possible to write something about fakes and forgeries in the philatelic literature field?"), I first misunderstood the question, namely in a traditional context. Accordingly my answer was: So much has already been written about forgeries, I had myself treated the topic recently in my book "Milestones of the Philatelic Literature of the 19th century". A complete chapter was dedicated there to the subject of fakes and forgeries. Hällström became more precise – I had almost expected as much – that he did not mean that, but that indeed he wished me to write an article on falsifications of philatelic literature instead of a study about fakes and forgeries in philatelic literature. Well, that I understood now – and hesitated, because except for one case no falsification of philatelic literature was known to me off‐hand. But the more I got my teeth into the matter, the more certain questions rose to my mind which showed that forgeries of philatelic literature could very well be a subject that needed to be treated, even if up to now – to the best on the author’s knowledge – nobody had ever attended to the matter. In the end the subject boils down to a matter of definition of forgery and/or falsification. Our present times make a large array of modern appliances available for duplication, copying and printing which allow the making of products that – from a classical point of view and unless identified as such – represent forgeries in the traditional sense. Leaving plagiarism from the earliest times aside, reprints of all kinds and origins are problematic today more than ever, and not the least for the simple reason that the boundaries between the original and the remake become more and more fluid. Besides "forgeries" there are also falsifications of philatelic literature, because – similar to the restoration and repair of stamps – quite a few old and rare volumes of philatelic literature come in antique, noble looking and wonderfully crafted bindings which however are not timely and do not bear an indication that they have been repaired and embellished post hoc. Original works with privately ordered older or recent new bindings are quite problematic as such, because most buyers lack the possibility of comparison. In that way the author slowly understood that Jonas Hällström had touched upon an important subject in full conscience of the fact that by doing so he had opened some kind of "Pandora’s Box".