FFE Journal - Fakes Forgeries Experts

Articles from FFE #2

FFE #2

Restoration

Class: Other

A. Ronald Butler

The author discusses acceptable restoration of fine art and unacceptable repair of philatelic material. While a collector may consider repairing a damaged, but exceptional item, the decision may have been taken for him already by a previous owner. In this context an unadopted essay by William Bell for the 1857 "Emblems" issue for the Colony of Victoria is discussed. Restored items appropriately labelled may be included in exhibitions, but if not declared, their inclusion must down grade the exhibit.

FFE #2

Forgeries and Fakes

Class: TR

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

In distinguishing between genuine and forged stamps different printing techniques must be understood - letterpress, recess or gravure, and litho. Forgeries printed by methods other than the original, and those made in the same way as the original are considered. Faking by addition of false overprints or postmarks is discussed in this context, as is faking by removal, as in the addition of perforations. Finally faking by chemical transformation is included. In French, and the English text is a synopsis while captions to the illustrations are not translated.

FFE #2

The stamp is genuine; the obliteration is not

Class: TR

Pierre Guinaud

Forged or faked postmarks ao Swiss sitting Helvetias are the subject of this extensive piece set in the context of the sale of these stamps by the Swiss post office from 1st July 1887. The writer considers the addition of postmarks to this stock, both genuine but antedated and forged. Postal clerks colluded in this, and the known fakes with dates are listed and illustrated, followed by forged Fournier postmarks through to modern marks made by photocopying machines.

FFE #2

Dangerous overprint forgeries on the postage stamps of Yugoslavia from recent years

Class: TR

Jovan Velickovic

Postage stamps were surcharged in Yugoslavia during the inflation and hyperinflation period ending in January 1994. The sale of bulk stamps by the post office, for example in 1990, allowed large quantities to come into the hands of forgers. Mi. 2142, 1985; Mi. 2363, 1989; Mi. 2557, 1992; are illustrated. More than 40 phantom issues were created for collectors after 1991, and small volume issues of Republika Srpska and the Serbian Republic of Krajina were also forged. Beware of forgeries and falsifications on UN and other official mail from 1992-1996.

FFE #2

Modern techniques help the expert team of the Dutch federation

Class: Other

Pieter F.A. van de Loo

Technical equipment used in the Netherlands is shown. This involves the use of a 'KRONTRON' frame grabber camera, stereo microscope with a revolving 'table' (platen), cold light unit and printer. By overlaying images of forged and genuine items such as postmarks and overprints, forgeries can be identified.

FFE #2

New methods to identify fakes II

Class: Other

Pavel Pittermann, Miroslav Musil

The use of EDF-XRF (X-ray fluorescence) was shown in FFE1. The writer considers the use of infra-red and ultra-violet light with spectral analysis in covers from 1873, 1816 and 1835. Its limitations are demonstrated in the case of the Czech 50/50h DOPLATIT overprint of 1927 (SG D280a). The system is cheaper but the mich more expensive ED-XRF system is required in some cases.

FFE #2

The metamorphosis of the cross

Class: PH

Gérard Desarnaud

An 1877 letter with the 'Sage' type 30 c cancelled JAFFA with a Jerusalem cross is illustrated, as is the much less desirable state of this extremely improved piece. Offered in auction, it was withdrawn, only to be offered by another auction house later.

FFE #2

Faked, forged and falsified space mail

Class: PH

Walter Michael Hopferwieser

Space mail is mail sent to and from the space stations 'Mir' and 'Salyut 6', and to and from Star City near Moscow or the Baikonur Cosmodrome, and other space locations. The characteristics of such mail are discussed and forgeries considered. This extensive article consists primarily of Russian material, but the US moon landing of 1969 (Apollo 11) items from Apollo 14 and controversial mail from Apollo 15 are included. The translation of the German word 'bord' into English 'board' should be replaced in the readers mind by 'ship'.

FFE #2

The cebicitas to France

Class: PH

Michèle Chauvet

Markings on mail sent from Buenos Aries to France via England are discussed. Since it was cheaper to hand mail directly into the British post office in Buenos Aries, such mail franked to this port of departure is very uncommon. However, except for the local franking, the postal marks on internally, franked and unfranked mail are usually identical. Such a letter is considered and its faking unmasked partly by considering the plausibility of its transatlantic transit time.

FFE #2

Fakes and forgeries of the Swedish printing error 20/tretio

Class: TR

Helena Obermüller Wilén

The origin of the Swedish 20/TRETIO error of 1879 is explained. The distinctive features of the Fournier forgery is illustrated as are subsequent forgeries including one on cover postmarked MAJORNA 18.6.1880. A bibliography is included.

FFE #2

Nicolas Frères

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

Bisected and quadrisected French stamps on covers from Nicholas Fréres during 1870-72 are illustrated, usually cancelled with numeral 1139 and with CORNIMONT postmarks. Despite being judged to be genuine, and being illustrated in specialist works, all are fakes, despite some having expert certification.

FFE #2

Equipment for experts in the House of Philately of the Association of German Philatelists at Bonn

Class: Other

Wilhelm van Loo

The work of the House of Philately in Bonn is explained including its use of the Zeiss Stereomicroscope SV11 with a cold light source, video camera and monitor.

FFE #2

Fibre optic illumination, a practical aid for examiners

Class: Other

Christoph Hertsch

The use of a fibre-optic cold light source with colour filters is described.

FFE #2

Postage stamp auctioneers and experts

Class: Other

Volker Parten

The origin of expertising by auction houses up to the First World War, its development between the wars, and later is explained, as is the development of the general and specialised expert. An auction trade without the use of experts is no longer imaginable.

FFE #2

A Little "Legalese"

Class: Other

Rolf P. Salinger

Legal remedies available to collectors in the United States where a seller fails to make good a buyer's loss in forgeries and manipulated items. Breach of warranty, disclaimers, the statute of limitations, evidence and expert advice are considered. Compensation, recovery of costs, and compromise conclude the piece.

FFE #2

Faking, partial or total

Class: PH

Vincent Pothion

A 1 Fr. 05 c cover from Saigon to Bordeaux from August 1868 is examined. The tariff is incorrect, and the cancellation is faked. A further cover with 'ARMEE DE LA MOSELLE' uses the wrong kind of paper and a photocopier to deceive.

FFE #2

Mauritius - Forgery of the 1861 9d brown embossed envelope

Class: PST

Alan Huggins

The differences between forged and genuine 1861 9d brown embossed postal stationery envelope are illustrated and set out in tabular form.

FFE #2

1948 doar ivri issue - "Popular" forgeries and fakes

Class: TR

Yacov Tsachor

On 16th May 1948 the 'Doar Ivri' stamp was issued in Israel. Imperforate values, values with tabs, sheetlets and a forged First Day Cover are shown.

FFE #2

Guetemala beware of "Cosmetics" to classic covers

Class: PH

Cécile Gruson

Early Guatemalan covers are scarce. Repair of damaged material is explained with reference to the transformation of a 2 Real cover of 27th January 1879 sent to California. It is shown from Harmer's in 1969, and transformed, at Corinphila in 1984.

FFE #2

The first postal forgery circulated in Cuba

Class: TR

Alfredo Navarro Payá

The history of the introduction of stamps in Puerto Rico and Cuba is explained. The earliest forgery recorded is from 1858 and its identification is explained. A further previously unrecorded unique postal forgery is described.

FFE #2

Limits to expertising

Class: Other

Ernst M. Cohn

What are the limits to bona fide expertising? This question is addressed by reference to standard comparisons with reference material, divergence of opinion, philatelic acceptance of material, and the complications of postal history. Specific items presented are the USA 1847 'Knapp shift'; the Belfort balloon mail of December 1870; 1870 smuggled mail from Metz; the 'Union' and 'Armée de Bretagne' balloon letters of 1870;p and mail carried from the siege of Paris by diplomatic pouch. Expertising is a developing art and science, requiring specialism, training, and facts, and it does have limitations.

FFE #2

Short notes about Argentine forerunners forged handstamps and some Uruguay stamps and maritime covers

Class: PH

Mario D. Kurchan

Elements marking stampless lettersheets with forged postmarks are described and illustrated. The British post office in Montivideo (C28) is considered.

FFE #2

"VII Congress Universal Postal Union". 1920 issue

Class: TR

Enrique Soro Bergua

The history of this Spanish issue and its forgeries, manipulations and fantasies are explained with extensive illustration.

FFE #2

BDPH seminar on forgeries

Class: Other

Reinhard Schmidt

The Association of German Philatelists seminar of November 1998 is summarised. This include the protection of collectors, a model contract for stamp swapping clubs and for purchase, the recognition of forgeries, and the use of technology in identifying fakes.

FFE #2

Faked frankings with Zürich Cantonal and transitional issues

Class: PH

Emil Rellstab

The Canton of Zurich issued its first stamps in 1843, and in 1875 a collector in the city was able to acquire many stamps of these early issues from an archive. They were used to create entires with Zurich 4 and 6. Modern techniques reveal these to be fakes, despite previous classification as genuine.

FFE #2

The war of the Pacific. The "Edwar Walker Forgeries"

Class: PH

Jörg Maier

Covers from Chile, from the Pacific War of 1879-1884 addressed to 'Edward Walker' in Lima are demonstrated to be forgeries.

FFE #2

The Bohne sale

Class: Other

Claes Arnup

The Werner Bohne reference collection of forgeries was brought to the market by Postiljonen, the Swedish auction house. Claes Arnrup describes the circumstances, and the sale.

FFE #2

Misuse of (old) marking devices

Class: PH

John Lievsay

The author comments on the use of old cancellers and marking devices to create forgeries. He suggests that these should be donated to expert services or postal museums. A Philadelphia piece of 29th August 1861 with additional forged handstamps is illustrated and described in support of this proposition.

FFE #2

The Connell stamp

Class: TR

Vincent Graves Green Philatelic Research Foundation

The unissued Connell stamp of New Brunswick was sent for expertising and the importance of philatelic literature in this case is presented.

FFE #2

An Obock fake

Class: PH

Jean-François Brun R.D.P.

An entire fabrication from Obock dated 25th February 1892 sent to Lyons is described. Other similar items from other colonies may be on the market.

FFE #2

Czechoslovakian stamps and their forgeries 1918-1939

Class: TR

Jan Karásek

A book by Jan Karásek describing all forgeries of Czech stamps from 1919-1939 has been published to critical acclaim.

FFE #2

French-Argentine postal history "letter"

Class: PH

Mario D. Kurchan

A 'Barquito' cover from Buenos Aires dated 12th November 1858 is described with the stamp and its canceller shown to be a forgery.